Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL, CLN3) is an inherited lysosomal disease. We used longitudinal MRI, for the first time, to evaluate the rate of brain volume alterations in JNCL.Six patients (mean ages of 12.4 years and 17.3 years) and 12 healthy controls were studied twice with 1.5 T MRI. White matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and CSF volumes were measured from the sets of T1-weighted 3-dimensional MR images using a fully automated image-processing procedure. The brain volume alterations were calculated as percentage change per year. The GM and whole brain volumes decreased and the CSF volume increased significantly more in the patients than in controls (p-values for the null hypothesis of equal means were 0.001, 0.004, and 0.005, respectively). We found no difference in the WM volume change between the populations. In patients, the GM volume decreased 2.4 % (SD 0.5 %, p 0.0001 for the null hypothesis of zero mean change between observations), the whole brain volume decreased 1.1 % (SD 0.5 %, p = 0.003), and the CSF volume increased 2.7 % (SD 1.8 %, p = 0.01) per year. In normal controls, only the mean white matter volume was significantly altered (0.8 % increase, SD 0.7 %, and p = 0.001).We demonstrated by longitudinal MRI that the annual rate of the gray matter loss in adolescent JNCL patients is as high as 2.4 %.
Autti, T. H., Hämäläinen, J., Mannerkoski, M., Van Leemput, K., & Åberg, L. E. (2008). JNCL patients show marked brain volume alterations on longitudinal MRI in adolescence. Journal of Neurology, 255(8), 1226-1230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-008-0891-x