Is high oily fish intake achievable and how does it affect nutrient status in 8-9-year-old children?: the FiSK Junior trial

Stine Vuholm*, Marie N. Teisen, Nanna Glent Buch, Ken D. Stark, Jette Jakobsen, Christian Mølgaard, Lotte Lauritzen, Camilla T. Damsgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Most children do not meet dietary guidelines for fish intake. Fish is the main source of EPA (20:5n-3), DHA (22:6n-3) and vitamin D, but may replace better iron sources such as meat. We investigated if intake of 300 g/week oily fish was achievable in children and how it affected their nutrient status. Additionally, we validated a fish food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by correlations against EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC). In a randomised 12-week trial, 199 children (8-9 years) received oily fish or poultry (control) to be eaten five times/week. We measured dietary intake and analysed fasting RBC EPA + DHA, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), blood haemoglobin and plasma ferritin. 197 (99%) children completed the study. The median (25th-75th percentile) intake was 375 (325-426) and 400 (359-452) g/week oily fish and poultry, respectively. The fish group increased their intake of EPA + DHA by 749 (593-891) mg/day and vitamin D by 3.1 (1.6-3.8) µg/day. Endpoint RBC EPA + DHA was 2.3 (95% CI 1.9; 2.6) fatty acid %-point higher than the poultry group (P  0.14). FFQ estimates moderately reflected habitual intake (r = 0.28-0.35) and sufficiently captured intervention-introduced changes in intake (r > 0.65). Oily fish intake of 300 g/week was achievable and improved children's EPA + DHA and 25(OH)D status, without markedly compromising iron status. These results justify public health initiatives focusing on children's fish intake.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
ISSN1436-6207
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019

Keywords

  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • Iron
  • Vitamin D
  • n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA)

Cite this

Vuholm, Stine ; Teisen, Marie N. ; Buch, Nanna Glent ; Stark, Ken D. ; Jakobsen, Jette ; Mølgaard, Christian ; Lauritzen, Lotte ; Damsgaard, Camilla T. / Is high oily fish intake achievable and how does it affect nutrient status in 8-9-year-old children?: the FiSK Junior trial. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2019.
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title = "Is high oily fish intake achievable and how does it affect nutrient status in 8-9-year-old children?: the FiSK Junior trial",
abstract = "Most children do not meet dietary guidelines for fish intake. Fish is the main source of EPA (20:5n-3), DHA (22:6n-3) and vitamin D, but may replace better iron sources such as meat. We investigated if intake of 300 g/week oily fish was achievable in children and how it affected their nutrient status. Additionally, we validated a fish food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by correlations against EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC). In a randomised 12-week trial, 199 children (8-9 years) received oily fish or poultry (control) to be eaten five times/week. We measured dietary intake and analysed fasting RBC EPA + DHA, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), blood haemoglobin and plasma ferritin. 197 (99{\%}) children completed the study. The median (25th-75th percentile) intake was 375 (325-426) and 400 (359-452) g/week oily fish and poultry, respectively. The fish group increased their intake of EPA + DHA by 749 (593-891) mg/day and vitamin D by 3.1 (1.6-3.8) µg/day. Endpoint RBC EPA + DHA was 2.3 (95{\%} CI 1.9; 2.6) fatty acid {\%}-point higher than the poultry group (P  0.14). FFQ estimates moderately reflected habitual intake (r = 0.28-0.35) and sufficiently captured intervention-introduced changes in intake (r > 0.65). Oily fish intake of 300 g/week was achievable and improved children's EPA + DHA and 25(OH)D status, without markedly compromising iron status. These results justify public health initiatives focusing on children's fish intake.",
keywords = "Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Iron, Vitamin D, n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA)",
author = "Stine Vuholm and Teisen, {Marie N.} and Buch, {Nanna Glent} and Stark, {Ken D.} and Jette Jakobsen and Christian M{\o}lgaard and Lotte Lauritzen and Damsgaard, {Camilla T.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-019-01981-y",
language = "English",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "1436-6207",
publisher = "Springer Medizin",

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Is high oily fish intake achievable and how does it affect nutrient status in 8-9-year-old children?: the FiSK Junior trial. / Vuholm, Stine; Teisen, Marie N.; Buch, Nanna Glent; Stark, Ken D.; Jakobsen, Jette; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Is high oily fish intake achievable and how does it affect nutrient status in 8-9-year-old children?: the FiSK Junior trial

AU - Vuholm, Stine

AU - Teisen, Marie N.

AU - Buch, Nanna Glent

AU - Stark, Ken D.

AU - Jakobsen, Jette

AU - Mølgaard, Christian

AU - Lauritzen, Lotte

AU - Damsgaard, Camilla T.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Most children do not meet dietary guidelines for fish intake. Fish is the main source of EPA (20:5n-3), DHA (22:6n-3) and vitamin D, but may replace better iron sources such as meat. We investigated if intake of 300 g/week oily fish was achievable in children and how it affected their nutrient status. Additionally, we validated a fish food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by correlations against EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC). In a randomised 12-week trial, 199 children (8-9 years) received oily fish or poultry (control) to be eaten five times/week. We measured dietary intake and analysed fasting RBC EPA + DHA, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), blood haemoglobin and plasma ferritin. 197 (99%) children completed the study. The median (25th-75th percentile) intake was 375 (325-426) and 400 (359-452) g/week oily fish and poultry, respectively. The fish group increased their intake of EPA + DHA by 749 (593-891) mg/day and vitamin D by 3.1 (1.6-3.8) µg/day. Endpoint RBC EPA + DHA was 2.3 (95% CI 1.9; 2.6) fatty acid %-point higher than the poultry group (P  0.14). FFQ estimates moderately reflected habitual intake (r = 0.28-0.35) and sufficiently captured intervention-introduced changes in intake (r > 0.65). Oily fish intake of 300 g/week was achievable and improved children's EPA + DHA and 25(OH)D status, without markedly compromising iron status. These results justify public health initiatives focusing on children's fish intake.

AB - Most children do not meet dietary guidelines for fish intake. Fish is the main source of EPA (20:5n-3), DHA (22:6n-3) and vitamin D, but may replace better iron sources such as meat. We investigated if intake of 300 g/week oily fish was achievable in children and how it affected their nutrient status. Additionally, we validated a fish food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by correlations against EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC). In a randomised 12-week trial, 199 children (8-9 years) received oily fish or poultry (control) to be eaten five times/week. We measured dietary intake and analysed fasting RBC EPA + DHA, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), blood haemoglobin and plasma ferritin. 197 (99%) children completed the study. The median (25th-75th percentile) intake was 375 (325-426) and 400 (359-452) g/week oily fish and poultry, respectively. The fish group increased their intake of EPA + DHA by 749 (593-891) mg/day and vitamin D by 3.1 (1.6-3.8) µg/day. Endpoint RBC EPA + DHA was 2.3 (95% CI 1.9; 2.6) fatty acid %-point higher than the poultry group (P  0.14). FFQ estimates moderately reflected habitual intake (r = 0.28-0.35) and sufficiently captured intervention-introduced changes in intake (r > 0.65). Oily fish intake of 300 g/week was achievable and improved children's EPA + DHA and 25(OH)D status, without markedly compromising iron status. These results justify public health initiatives focusing on children's fish intake.

KW - Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

KW - Iron

KW - Vitamin D

KW - n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA)

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-019-01981-y

DO - 10.1007/s00394-019-01981-y

M3 - Journal article

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

ER -