In a chemical investigation of the water soluble compounds in Paederota lutea eight known iridoids were isolated together with a new one with a 8,9-double bond, namely paederotoside (10-O-benzoyl-6'-O-alpha-arabino(1-6)-beta-glucopyranosyl arborescosidic acid) and the 6-hydroxy-flavone glucoside scutellarein 4'-methyl ether 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside. The known iridoid glucosides were mussaenosidic acid, gardoside, aucubin, catalpol and the 6-O-catalpol esters veronicoside, catalposide, amphicoside and verproside. The compounds isolated show that Paederota has a glycoside content almost identical to that of a general Veronica species, and this is in good agreement with the results from recent investigations of the phylogeny of Veronica and its closest relatives, where Paederota is placed as a sister-group next to Veronica. In an analysis of the iridoid glucosides from some of these relatives, it is shown that Veronica, Paederota, Picrorhiza and Veronicastrum are all characterized by containing 6-O-esters of catalpol. Some less closely related taxa namely: Lagotis, Wulfenia, Plantago, Aragoa and Globularia instead contain 10-O-esters of catalpol or aucubin.