Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

R. Adam, P. A R Ade, N. Aghanim, M. I R Alves, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, J. G. Bartlett, N. Bartolo, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, A. Benoît, A. Benoit-Lévy, J. P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. J. BockA. Bonaldi, L. Bonavera, J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, F. Boulanger, M. Bucher, C. Burigana, R. C. Butler, E. Calabrese, J. F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, A. Challinor, A. Chamballu, R. R. Chary, H. C. Chiang, P. R. Christensen, D. L. Clements, S. Colombi, L. P L Colombo, C. Combet, F. Couchot, A. Coulais, B. P. Crill, A. Curto, F. Cuttaia, L. Danese, R. D. Davies, R. J. Davis, P. De Bernardis, A. De Rosa, Giulia De Zotti, J. Delabrouille, F. X. Désert, C. Dickinson, J. M. Diego, H. Dole, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, A. Ducout, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, F. Elsner, T. A. Enßlin, H. K. Eriksen, E. Falgarone, J. Fergusson, F. Finelli, O. Forni, M. Frailis, A. A. Fraisse, E. Franceschi, A. Frejsel, S. Galeotta, S. Galli, K. Ganga, T. Ghosh, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, E. Gjerløw, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, S. Gratton, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, J. E. Gudmundsson, F. K. Hansen, D. Hanson, D. L. Harrison, G. Helou, S. Henrot-Versillé, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, D. Herranz, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W. A. Holmes, Allan Hornstrup, W. Hovest, K. M. Huffenberger, G. Hurier, A. H. Jaffe, T. R. Jaffe, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T. S. Kisner, R. Kneissl, J. Knoche, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, A. Lähteenmäki, J. M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, M. Lattanzi, C. R. Lawrence, M. Le Jeune, J. P. Leahy, R. Leonardi, J. Lesgourgues, F. Levrier, M. Liguori, P. B. Lilje, Michael Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, J. F. Maciás-Pérez, G. Maggio, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, A. Mangilli, M. Maris, D. J. Marshall, P. G. Martin, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, P. Mcgehee, P. R. Meinhold, A. Melchiorri, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, M. Migliaccio, Susanta Mitra, M. A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, A. Moss, D. Munshi, J. A. Murphy, P. Naselsky, F. Nati, P. Natoli, C. B. Netterfield, Hans Ulrik Nørgaard-Nielsen, F. Noviello, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, E. Orlando, Carol Anne Oxborrow, F. Paci, L. Pagano, Fernand Pajot, R. Paladini, D. Paoletti, B. Partridge, F. Pasian, G. Patanchon, T. J. Pearson, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, E. Pierpaoli, D. Pietrobon, S. Plaszczynski, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, G. W. Pratt, G. Prézeau, S. Prunet, J. L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, W. T. Reach, R. Rebolo, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, C. Renault, A. Renzi, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, M. Rossetti, G. Roudier, J. A. Rubinõ-Martín, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, D. Santos, M. Savelainen, G. Savini, D. Scott, M. D. Seiffert, E. P S Shellard, L. D. Spencer, V. Stolyarov, R. Stompor, A. W. Strong, R. Sudiwala, R. Sunyaev, D. Sutton, A. S. Suur-Uski, J. F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tristram, M. Tucci, J. Tuovinen, G. Umana, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, F. Van Tent, P. Vielva, F. Villa, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, I. K. Wehus, A. Wilkinson, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

140 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization leakage, uncertainties in the analogue-to-digital conversion, and corrections for the very long time constant of the bolometer detectors, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA10
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume594
Number of pages63
ISSN0004-6361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • ISM: general
  • Cosmology: observations
  • Polarization
  • Cosmic background radiation
  • Diffuse radiation
  • Galaxy: general

Cite this

Adam, R., Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., ... Zonca, A. (2016). Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 594, [A10]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525967
Adam, R. ; Ade, P. A R ; Aghanim, N. ; Alves, M. I R ; Arnaud, M. ; Ashdown, M. ; Aumont, J. ; Baccigalupi, C. ; Banday, A. J. ; Barreiro, R. B. ; Bartlett, J. G. ; Bartolo, N. ; Battaner, E. ; Benabed, K. ; Benoît, A. ; Benoit-Lévy, A. ; Bernard, J. P. ; Bersanelli, M. ; Bielewicz, P. ; Bock, J. J. ; Bonaldi, A. ; Bonavera, L. ; Bond, J. R. ; Borrill, J. ; Bouchet, F. R. ; Boulanger, F. ; Bucher, M. ; Burigana, C. ; Butler, R. C. ; Calabrese, E. ; Cardoso, J. F. ; Catalano, A. ; Challinor, A. ; Chamballu, A. ; Chary, R. R. ; Chiang, H. C. ; Christensen, P. R. ; Clements, D. L. ; Colombi, S. ; Colombo, L. P L ; Combet, C. ; Couchot, F. ; Coulais, A. ; Crill, B. P. ; Curto, A. ; Cuttaia, F. ; Danese, L. ; Davies, R. D. ; Davis, R. J. ; De Bernardis, P. ; De Rosa, A. ; De Zotti, Giulia ; Delabrouille, J. ; Désert, F. X. ; Dickinson, C. ; Diego, J. M. ; Dole, H. ; Donzelli, S. ; Doré, O. ; Douspis, M. ; Ducout, A. ; Dupac, X. ; Efstathiou, G. ; Elsner, F. ; Enßlin, T. A. ; Eriksen, H. K. ; Falgarone, E. ; Fergusson, J. ; Finelli, F. ; Forni, O. ; Frailis, M. ; Fraisse, A. A. ; Franceschi, E. ; Frejsel, A. ; Galeotta, S. ; Galli, S. ; Ganga, K. ; Ghosh, T. ; Giard, M. ; Giraud-Héraud, Y. ; Gjerløw, E. ; González-Nuevo, J. ; Górski, K. M. ; Gratton, S. ; Gregorio, A. ; Gruppuso, A. ; Gudmundsson, J. E. ; Hansen, F. K. ; Hanson, D. ; Harrison, D. L. ; Helou, G. ; Henrot-Versillé, S. ; Hernández-Monteagudo, C. ; Herranz, D. ; Hildebrandt, S. R. ; Hivon, E. ; Hobson, M. ; Holmes, W. A. ; Hornstrup, Allan ; Hovest, W. ; Huffenberger, K. M. ; Hurier, G. ; Jaffe, A. H. ; Jaffe, T. R. ; Jones, W. C. ; Juvela, M. ; Keihänen, E. ; Keskitalo, R. ; Kisner, T. S. ; Kneissl, R. ; Knoche, J. ; Kunz, M. ; Kurki-Suonio, H. ; Lagache, G. ; Lähteenmäki, A. ; Lamarre, J. M. ; Lasenby, A. ; Lattanzi, M. ; Lawrence, C. R. ; Le Jeune, M. ; Leahy, J. P. ; Leonardi, R. ; Lesgourgues, J. ; Levrier, F. ; Liguori, M. ; Lilje, P. B. ; Linden-Vørnle, Michael ; López-Caniego, M. ; Lubin, P. M. ; Maciás-Pérez, J. F. ; Maggio, G. ; Maino, D. ; Mandolesi, N. ; Mangilli, A. ; Maris, M. ; Marshall, D. J. ; Martin, P. G. ; Martínez-González, E. ; Masi, S. ; Matarrese, S. ; Mcgehee, P. ; Meinhold, P. R. ; Melchiorri, A. ; Mendes, L. ; Mennella, A. ; Migliaccio, M. ; Mitra, Susanta ; Miville-Deschênes, M. A. ; Moneti, A. ; Montier, L. ; Morgante, G. ; Mortlock, D. ; Moss, A. ; Munshi, D. ; Murphy, J. A. ; Naselsky, P. ; Nati, F. ; Natoli, P. ; Netterfield, C. B. ; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik ; Noviello, F. ; Novikov, D. ; Novikov, I. ; Orlando, E. ; Oxborrow, Carol Anne ; Paci, F. ; Pagano, L. ; Pajot, Fernand ; Paladini, R. ; Paoletti, D. ; Partridge, B. ; Pasian, F. ; Patanchon, G. ; Pearson, T. J. ; Perdereau, O. ; Perotto, L. ; Perrotta, F. ; Pettorino, V. ; Piacentini, F. ; Piat, M. ; Pierpaoli, E. ; Pietrobon, D. ; Plaszczynski, S. ; Pointecouteau, E. ; Polenta, G. ; Pratt, G. W. ; Prézeau, G. ; Prunet, S. ; Puget, J. L. ; Rachen, J. P. ; Reach, W. T. ; Rebolo, R. ; Reinecke, M. ; Remazeilles, M. ; Renault, C. ; Renzi, A. ; Ristorcelli, I. ; Rocha, G. ; Rosset, C. ; Rossetti, M. ; Roudier, G. ; Rubinõ-Martín, J. A. ; Rusholme, B. ; Sandri, M. ; Santos, D. ; Savelainen, M. ; Savini, G. ; Scott, D. ; Seiffert, M. D. ; Shellard, E. P S ; Spencer, L. D. ; Stolyarov, V. ; Stompor, R. ; Strong, A. W. ; Sudiwala, R. ; Sunyaev, R. ; Sutton, D. ; Suur-Uski, A. S. ; Sygnet, J. F. ; Tauber, J. A. ; Terenzi, L. ; Toffolatti, L. ; Tomasi, M. ; Tristram, M. ; Tucci, M. ; Tuovinen, J. ; Umana, G. ; Valenziano, L. ; Valiviita, J. ; Van Tent, F. ; Vielva, P. ; Villa, F. ; Wade, L. A. ; Wandelt, B. D. ; Wehus, I. K. ; Wilkinson, A. ; Yvon, D. ; Zacchei, A. ; Zonca, A. / Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps. In: Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2016 ; Vol. 594.
@article{dad23db5e5fe4f54b38fc4fc725ab1d9,
title = "Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps",
abstract = "Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93{\%} of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1{\%} in the remaining 7{\%} of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization leakage, uncertainties in the analogue-to-digital conversion, and corrections for the very long time constant of the bolometer detectors, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.",
keywords = "ISM: general, Cosmology: observations, Polarization, Cosmic background radiation, Diffuse radiation, Galaxy: general",
author = "R. Adam and Ade, {P. A R} and N. Aghanim and Alves, {M. I R} and M. Arnaud and M. Ashdown and J. Aumont and C. Baccigalupi and Banday, {A. J.} and Barreiro, {R. B.} and Bartlett, {J. G.} and N. Bartolo and E. Battaner and K. Benabed and A. Beno{\^i}t and A. Benoit-L{\'e}vy and Bernard, {J. P.} and M. Bersanelli and P. Bielewicz and Bock, {J. J.} and A. Bonaldi and L. Bonavera and Bond, {J. R.} and J. Borrill and Bouchet, {F. R.} and F. Boulanger and M. Bucher and C. Burigana and Butler, {R. C.} and E. Calabrese and Cardoso, {J. F.} and A. Catalano and A. Challinor and A. Chamballu and Chary, {R. R.} and Chiang, {H. C.} and Christensen, {P. R.} and Clements, {D. L.} and S. Colombi and Colombo, {L. P L} and C. Combet and F. Couchot and A. Coulais and Crill, {B. P.} and A. Curto and F. Cuttaia and L. Danese and Davies, {R. D.} and Davis, {R. J.} and {De Bernardis}, P. and {De Rosa}, A. and {De Zotti}, Giulia and J. Delabrouille and D{\'e}sert, {F. X.} and C. Dickinson and Diego, {J. M.} and H. Dole and S. Donzelli and O. Dor{\'e} and M. Douspis and A. Ducout and X. Dupac and G. Efstathiou and F. Elsner and En{\ss}lin, {T. A.} and Eriksen, {H. K.} and E. Falgarone and J. Fergusson and F. Finelli and O. Forni and M. Frailis and Fraisse, {A. A.} and E. Franceschi and A. Frejsel and S. Galeotta and S. Galli and K. Ganga and T. Ghosh and M. Giard and Y. Giraud-H{\'e}raud and E. Gjerl{\o}w and J. Gonz{\'a}lez-Nuevo and G{\'o}rski, {K. M.} and S. Gratton and A. Gregorio and A. Gruppuso and Gudmundsson, {J. E.} and Hansen, {F. K.} and D. Hanson and Harrison, {D. L.} and G. Helou and S. Henrot-Versill{\'e} and C. Hern{\'a}ndez-Monteagudo and D. Herranz and Hildebrandt, {S. R.} and E. Hivon and M. Hobson and Holmes, {W. A.} and Allan Hornstrup and W. Hovest and Huffenberger, {K. M.} and G. Hurier and Jaffe, {A. H.} and Jaffe, {T. R.} and Jones, {W. C.} and M. Juvela and E. Keih{\"a}nen and R. Keskitalo and Kisner, {T. S.} and R. Kneissl and J. Knoche and M. Kunz and H. Kurki-Suonio and G. Lagache and A. L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and Lamarre, {J. M.} and A. Lasenby and M. Lattanzi and Lawrence, {C. R.} and {Le Jeune}, M. and Leahy, {J. P.} and R. Leonardi and J. Lesgourgues and F. Levrier and M. Liguori and Lilje, {P. B.} and Michael Linden-V{\o}rnle and M. L{\'o}pez-Caniego and Lubin, {P. M.} and Maci{\'a}s-P{\'e}rez, {J. F.} and G. Maggio and D. Maino and N. Mandolesi and A. Mangilli and M. Maris and Marshall, {D. J.} and Martin, {P. G.} and E. Mart{\'i}nez-Gonz{\'a}lez and S. Masi and S. Matarrese and P. Mcgehee and Meinhold, {P. R.} and A. Melchiorri and L. Mendes and A. Mennella and M. Migliaccio and Susanta Mitra and Miville-Desch{\^e}nes, {M. A.} and A. Moneti and L. Montier and G. Morgante and D. Mortlock and A. Moss and D. Munshi and Murphy, {J. A.} and P. Naselsky and F. Nati and P. Natoli and Netterfield, {C. B.} and N{\o}rgaard-Nielsen, {Hans Ulrik} and F. Noviello and D. Novikov and I. Novikov and E. Orlando and Oxborrow, {Carol Anne} and F. Paci and L. Pagano and Fernand Pajot and R. Paladini and D. Paoletti and B. Partridge and F. Pasian and G. Patanchon and Pearson, {T. J.} and O. Perdereau and L. Perotto and F. Perrotta and V. Pettorino and F. Piacentini and M. Piat and E. Pierpaoli and D. Pietrobon and S. Plaszczynski and E. Pointecouteau and G. Polenta and Pratt, {G. W.} and G. Pr{\'e}zeau and S. Prunet and Puget, {J. L.} and Rachen, {J. P.} and Reach, {W. T.} and R. Rebolo and M. Reinecke and M. Remazeilles and C. Renault and A. Renzi and I. Ristorcelli and G. Rocha and C. Rosset and M. Rossetti and G. Roudier and Rubin{\~o}-Mart{\'i}n, {J. A.} and B. Rusholme and M. Sandri and D. Santos and M. Savelainen and G. Savini and D. Scott and Seiffert, {M. D.} and Shellard, {E. P S} and Spencer, {L. D.} and V. Stolyarov and R. Stompor and Strong, {A. W.} and R. Sudiwala and R. Sunyaev and D. Sutton and Suur-Uski, {A. S.} and Sygnet, {J. F.} and Tauber, {J. A.} and L. Terenzi and L. Toffolatti and M. Tomasi and M. Tristram and M. Tucci and J. Tuovinen and G. Umana and L. Valenziano and J. Valiviita and {Van Tent}, F. and P. Vielva and F. Villa and Wade, {L. A.} and Wandelt, {B. D.} and Wehus, {I. K.} and A. Wilkinson and D. Yvon and A. Zacchei and A. Zonca",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201525967",
language = "English",
volume = "594",
journal = "Astronomy & Astrophysics",
issn = "0004-6361",
publisher = "E D P Sciences",

}

Adam, R, Ade, PAR, Aghanim, N, Alves, MIR, Arnaud, M, Ashdown, M, Aumont, J, Baccigalupi, C, Banday, AJ, Barreiro, RB, Bartlett, JG, Bartolo, N, Battaner, E, Benabed, K, Benoît, A, Benoit-Lévy, A, Bernard, JP, Bersanelli, M, Bielewicz, P, Bock, JJ, Bonaldi, A, Bonavera, L, Bond, JR, Borrill, J, Bouchet, FR, Boulanger, F, Bucher, M, Burigana, C, Butler, RC, Calabrese, E, Cardoso, JF, Catalano, A, Challinor, A, Chamballu, A, Chary, RR, Chiang, HC, Christensen, PR, Clements, DL, Colombi, S, Colombo, LPL, Combet, C, Couchot, F, Coulais, A, Crill, BP, Curto, A, Cuttaia, F, Danese, L, Davies, RD, Davis, RJ, De Bernardis, P, De Rosa, A, De Zotti, G, Delabrouille, J, Désert, FX, Dickinson, C, Diego, JM, Dole, H, Donzelli, S, Doré, O, Douspis, M, Ducout, A, Dupac, X, Efstathiou, G, Elsner, F, Enßlin, TA, Eriksen, HK, Falgarone, E, Fergusson, J, Finelli, F, Forni, O, Frailis, M, Fraisse, AA, Franceschi, E, Frejsel, A, Galeotta, S, Galli, S, Ganga, K, Ghosh, T, Giard, M, Giraud-Héraud, Y, Gjerløw, E, González-Nuevo, J, Górski, KM, Gratton, S, Gregorio, A, Gruppuso, A, Gudmundsson, JE, Hansen, FK, Hanson, D, Harrison, DL, Helou, G, Henrot-Versillé, S, Hernández-Monteagudo, C, Herranz, D, Hildebrandt, SR, Hivon, E, Hobson, M, Holmes, WA, Hornstrup, A, Hovest, W, Huffenberger, KM, Hurier, G, Jaffe, AH, Jaffe, TR, Jones, WC, Juvela, M, Keihänen, E, Keskitalo, R, Kisner, TS, Kneissl, R, Knoche, J, Kunz, M, Kurki-Suonio, H, Lagache, G, Lähteenmäki, A, Lamarre, JM, Lasenby, A, Lattanzi, M, Lawrence, CR, Le Jeune, M, Leahy, JP, Leonardi, R, Lesgourgues, J, Levrier, F, Liguori, M, Lilje, PB, Linden-Vørnle, M, López-Caniego, M, Lubin, PM, Maciás-Pérez, JF, Maggio, G, Maino, D, Mandolesi, N, Mangilli, A, Maris, M, Marshall, DJ, Martin, PG, Martínez-González, E, Masi, S, Matarrese, S, Mcgehee, P, Meinhold, PR, Melchiorri, A, Mendes, L, Mennella, A, Migliaccio, M, Mitra, S, Miville-Deschênes, MA, Moneti, A, Montier, L, Morgante, G, Mortlock, D, Moss, A, Munshi, D, Murphy, JA, Naselsky, P, Nati, F, Natoli, P, Netterfield, CB, Nørgaard-Nielsen, HU, Noviello, F, Novikov, D, Novikov, I, Orlando, E, Oxborrow, CA, Paci, F, Pagano, L, Pajot, F, Paladini, R, Paoletti, D, Partridge, B, Pasian, F, Patanchon, G, Pearson, TJ, Perdereau, O, Perotto, L, Perrotta, F, Pettorino, V, Piacentini, F, Piat, M, Pierpaoli, E, Pietrobon, D, Plaszczynski, S, Pointecouteau, E, Polenta, G, Pratt, GW, Prézeau, G, Prunet, S, Puget, JL, Rachen, JP, Reach, WT, Rebolo, R, Reinecke, M, Remazeilles, M, Renault, C, Renzi, A, Ristorcelli, I, Rocha, G, Rosset, C, Rossetti, M, Roudier, G, Rubinõ-Martín, JA, Rusholme, B, Sandri, M, Santos, D, Savelainen, M, Savini, G, Scott, D, Seiffert, MD, Shellard, EPS, Spencer, LD, Stolyarov, V, Stompor, R, Strong, AW, Sudiwala, R, Sunyaev, R, Sutton, D, Suur-Uski, AS, Sygnet, JF, Tauber, JA, Terenzi, L, Toffolatti, L, Tomasi, M, Tristram, M, Tucci, M, Tuovinen, J, Umana, G, Valenziano, L, Valiviita, J, Van Tent, F, Vielva, P, Villa, F, Wade, LA, Wandelt, BD, Wehus, IK, Wilkinson, A, Yvon, D, Zacchei, A & Zonca, A 2016, 'Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps', Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 594, A10. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525967

Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps. / Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P L; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; De Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, Giulia; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F. X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J. M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Maciás-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mcgehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, Susanta; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, Carol Anne; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, Fernand; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubinõ-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P S; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. S.; Sygnet, J. F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

In: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 594, A10, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

AU - Adam, R.

AU - Ade, P. A R

AU - Aghanim, N.

AU - Alves, M. I R

AU - Arnaud, M.

AU - Ashdown, M.

AU - Aumont, J.

AU - Baccigalupi, C.

AU - Banday, A. J.

AU - Barreiro, R. B.

AU - Bartlett, J. G.

AU - Bartolo, N.

AU - Battaner, E.

AU - Benabed, K.

AU - Benoît, A.

AU - Benoit-Lévy, A.

AU - Bernard, J. P.

AU - Bersanelli, M.

AU - Bielewicz, P.

AU - Bock, J. J.

AU - Bonaldi, A.

AU - Bonavera, L.

AU - Bond, J. R.

AU - Borrill, J.

AU - Bouchet, F. R.

AU - Boulanger, F.

AU - Bucher, M.

AU - Burigana, C.

AU - Butler, R. C.

AU - Calabrese, E.

AU - Cardoso, J. F.

AU - Catalano, A.

AU - Challinor, A.

AU - Chamballu, A.

AU - Chary, R. R.

AU - Chiang, H. C.

AU - Christensen, P. R.

AU - Clements, D. L.

AU - Colombi, S.

AU - Colombo, L. P L

AU - Combet, C.

AU - Couchot, F.

AU - Coulais, A.

AU - Crill, B. P.

AU - Curto, A.

AU - Cuttaia, F.

AU - Danese, L.

AU - Davies, R. D.

AU - Davis, R. J.

AU - De Bernardis, P.

AU - De Rosa, A.

AU - De Zotti, Giulia

AU - Delabrouille, J.

AU - Désert, F. X.

AU - Dickinson, C.

AU - Diego, J. M.

AU - Dole, H.

AU - Donzelli, S.

AU - Doré, O.

AU - Douspis, M.

AU - Ducout, A.

AU - Dupac, X.

AU - Efstathiou, G.

AU - Elsner, F.

AU - Enßlin, T. A.

AU - Eriksen, H. K.

AU - Falgarone, E.

AU - Fergusson, J.

AU - Finelli, F.

AU - Forni, O.

AU - Frailis, M.

AU - Fraisse, A. A.

AU - Franceschi, E.

AU - Frejsel, A.

AU - Galeotta, S.

AU - Galli, S.

AU - Ganga, K.

AU - Ghosh, T.

AU - Giard, M.

AU - Giraud-Héraud, Y.

AU - Gjerløw, E.

AU - González-Nuevo, J.

AU - Górski, K. M.

AU - Gratton, S.

AU - Gregorio, A.

AU - Gruppuso, A.

AU - Gudmundsson, J. E.

AU - Hansen, F. K.

AU - Hanson, D.

AU - Harrison, D. L.

AU - Helou, G.

AU - Henrot-Versillé, S.

AU - Hernández-Monteagudo, C.

AU - Herranz, D.

AU - Hildebrandt, S. R.

AU - Hivon, E.

AU - Hobson, M.

AU - Holmes, W. A.

AU - Hornstrup, Allan

AU - Hovest, W.

AU - Huffenberger, K. M.

AU - Hurier, G.

AU - Jaffe, A. H.

AU - Jaffe, T. R.

AU - Jones, W. C.

AU - Juvela, M.

AU - Keihänen, E.

AU - Keskitalo, R.

AU - Kisner, T. S.

AU - Kneissl, R.

AU - Knoche, J.

AU - Kunz, M.

AU - Kurki-Suonio, H.

AU - Lagache, G.

AU - Lähteenmäki, A.

AU - Lamarre, J. M.

AU - Lasenby, A.

AU - Lattanzi, M.

AU - Lawrence, C. R.

AU - Le Jeune, M.

AU - Leahy, J. P.

AU - Leonardi, R.

AU - Lesgourgues, J.

AU - Levrier, F.

AU - Liguori, M.

AU - Lilje, P. B.

AU - Linden-Vørnle, Michael

AU - López-Caniego, M.

AU - Lubin, P. M.

AU - Maciás-Pérez, J. F.

AU - Maggio, G.

AU - Maino, D.

AU - Mandolesi, N.

AU - Mangilli, A.

AU - Maris, M.

AU - Marshall, D. J.

AU - Martin, P. G.

AU - Martínez-González, E.

AU - Masi, S.

AU - Matarrese, S.

AU - Mcgehee, P.

AU - Meinhold, P. R.

AU - Melchiorri, A.

AU - Mendes, L.

AU - Mennella, A.

AU - Migliaccio, M.

AU - Mitra, Susanta

AU - Miville-Deschênes, M. A.

AU - Moneti, A.

AU - Montier, L.

AU - Morgante, G.

AU - Mortlock, D.

AU - Moss, A.

AU - Munshi, D.

AU - Murphy, J. A.

AU - Naselsky, P.

AU - Nati, F.

AU - Natoli, P.

AU - Netterfield, C. B.

AU - Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

AU - Noviello, F.

AU - Novikov, D.

AU - Novikov, I.

AU - Orlando, E.

AU - Oxborrow, Carol Anne

AU - Paci, F.

AU - Pagano, L.

AU - Pajot, Fernand

AU - Paladini, R.

AU - Paoletti, D.

AU - Partridge, B.

AU - Pasian, F.

AU - Patanchon, G.

AU - Pearson, T. J.

AU - Perdereau, O.

AU - Perotto, L.

AU - Perrotta, F.

AU - Pettorino, V.

AU - Piacentini, F.

AU - Piat, M.

AU - Pierpaoli, E.

AU - Pietrobon, D.

AU - Plaszczynski, S.

AU - Pointecouteau, E.

AU - Polenta, G.

AU - Pratt, G. W.

AU - Prézeau, G.

AU - Prunet, S.

AU - Puget, J. L.

AU - Rachen, J. P.

AU - Reach, W. T.

AU - Rebolo, R.

AU - Reinecke, M.

AU - Remazeilles, M.

AU - Renault, C.

AU - Renzi, A.

AU - Ristorcelli, I.

AU - Rocha, G.

AU - Rosset, C.

AU - Rossetti, M.

AU - Roudier, G.

AU - Rubinõ-Martín, J. A.

AU - Rusholme, B.

AU - Sandri, M.

AU - Santos, D.

AU - Savelainen, M.

AU - Savini, G.

AU - Scott, D.

AU - Seiffert, M. D.

AU - Shellard, E. P S

AU - Spencer, L. D.

AU - Stolyarov, V.

AU - Stompor, R.

AU - Strong, A. W.

AU - Sudiwala, R.

AU - Sunyaev, R.

AU - Sutton, D.

AU - Suur-Uski, A. S.

AU - Sygnet, J. F.

AU - Tauber, J. A.

AU - Terenzi, L.

AU - Toffolatti, L.

AU - Tomasi, M.

AU - Tristram, M.

AU - Tucci, M.

AU - Tuovinen, J.

AU - Umana, G.

AU - Valenziano, L.

AU - Valiviita, J.

AU - Van Tent, F.

AU - Vielva, P.

AU - Villa, F.

AU - Wade, L. A.

AU - Wandelt, B. D.

AU - Wehus, I. K.

AU - Wilkinson, A.

AU - Yvon, D.

AU - Zacchei, A.

AU - Zonca, A.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization leakage, uncertainties in the analogue-to-digital conversion, and corrections for the very long time constant of the bolometer detectors, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.

AB - Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization leakage, uncertainties in the analogue-to-digital conversion, and corrections for the very long time constant of the bolometer detectors, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.

KW - ISM: general

KW - Cosmology: observations

KW - Polarization

KW - Cosmic background radiation

KW - Diffuse radiation

KW - Galaxy: general

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201525967

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201525967

M3 - Journal article

VL - 594

JO - Astronomy & Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy & Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

M1 - A10

ER -