Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

Dolores Gavier-Widen, Caroline Brojer, Hans Henrik Dietz, Lena Englund, Anne Sofie Hammer, Kjell-Olof Hedlund, Carl Hard af Segerstad, Kristina Nilsson, Norbert Nowotny, Vuokko Puurula, Peter Thoren, Henrik Uhlhorn, Herbert Weissenbock, Erik Agren, Berndt Klingeborn

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalomyelitis was found in the affected kits. The lesions were most severe in the brainstem and cerebellum and consisted of neuronal degeneration and necrosis, neuronophagia, focal and diffuse gliosis, perivascular cuffs formed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, and segmental loss of Purkinje cells. Testing was conducted to determine the cause of the disease, including general virological investigations (virus culture, negative-staining electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction for herpesviruses, adenoviruses, pestiviruses, and coronaviruses), tests for specific viral diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice. The results of all these investigations were negative. One group of 3 mink kits inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate of affected mink developed clinical signs and histological lesions similar to those observed in naturally infected mink. Based on the histopathological features, it is postulated that the disease is caused by a yet unidentified virus.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
    Volume16
    Issue number4
    Pages (from-to)305-312
    ISSN1040-6387
    Publication statusPublished - 2004

    Cite this

    Gavier-Widen, D., Brojer, C., Dietz, H. H., Englund, L., Hammer, A. S., Hedlund, K-O., ... Klingeborn, B. (2004). Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 16(4), 305-312.
    Gavier-Widen, Dolores ; Brojer, Caroline ; Dietz, Hans Henrik ; Englund, Lena ; Hammer, Anne Sofie ; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof ; af Segerstad, Carl Hard ; Nilsson, Kristina ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Puurula, Vuokko ; Thoren, Peter ; Uhlhorn, Henrik ; Weissenbock, Herbert ; Agren, Erik ; Klingeborn, Berndt. / Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia. In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2004 ; Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 305-312.
    @article{9d95b2d0d4e944b794427b08d2505aed,
    title = "Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia",
    abstract = "An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalomyelitis was found in the affected kits. The lesions were most severe in the brainstem and cerebellum and consisted of neuronal degeneration and necrosis, neuronophagia, focal and diffuse gliosis, perivascular cuffs formed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, and segmental loss of Purkinje cells. Testing was conducted to determine the cause of the disease, including general virological investigations (virus culture, negative-staining electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction for herpesviruses, adenoviruses, pestiviruses, and coronaviruses), tests for specific viral diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice. The results of all these investigations were negative. One group of 3 mink kits inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate of affected mink developed clinical signs and histological lesions similar to those observed in naturally infected mink. Based on the histopathological features, it is postulated that the disease is caused by a yet unidentified virus.",
    author = "Dolores Gavier-Widen and Caroline Brojer and Dietz, {Hans Henrik} and Lena Englund and Hammer, {Anne Sofie} and Kjell-Olof Hedlund and {af Segerstad}, {Carl Hard} and Kristina Nilsson and Norbert Nowotny and Vuokko Puurula and Peter Thoren and Henrik Uhlhorn and Herbert Weissenbock and Erik Agren and Berndt Klingeborn",
    year = "2004",
    language = "English",
    volume = "16",
    pages = "305--312",
    journal = "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation",
    issn = "1040-6387",
    publisher = "SAGE Publications",
    number = "4",

    }

    Gavier-Widen, D, Brojer, C, Dietz, HH, Englund, L, Hammer, AS, Hedlund, K-O, af Segerstad, CH, Nilsson, K, Nowotny, N, Puurula, V, Thoren, P, Uhlhorn, H, Weissenbock, H, Agren, E & Klingeborn, B 2004, 'Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia', Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 305-312.

    Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia. / Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik; Englund, Lena; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; af Segerstad, Carl Hard; Nilsson, Kristina; Nowotny, Norbert; Puurula, Vuokko; Thoren, Peter; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Weissenbock, Herbert; Agren, Erik; Klingeborn, Berndt.

    In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2004, p. 305-312.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    AU - Gavier-Widen, Dolores

    AU - Brojer, Caroline

    AU - Dietz, Hans Henrik

    AU - Englund, Lena

    AU - Hammer, Anne Sofie

    AU - Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    AU - af Segerstad, Carl Hard

    AU - Nilsson, Kristina

    AU - Nowotny, Norbert

    AU - Puurula, Vuokko

    AU - Thoren, Peter

    AU - Uhlhorn, Henrik

    AU - Weissenbock, Herbert

    AU - Agren, Erik

    AU - Klingeborn, Berndt

    PY - 2004

    Y1 - 2004

    N2 - An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalomyelitis was found in the affected kits. The lesions were most severe in the brainstem and cerebellum and consisted of neuronal degeneration and necrosis, neuronophagia, focal and diffuse gliosis, perivascular cuffs formed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, and segmental loss of Purkinje cells. Testing was conducted to determine the cause of the disease, including general virological investigations (virus culture, negative-staining electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction for herpesviruses, adenoviruses, pestiviruses, and coronaviruses), tests for specific viral diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice. The results of all these investigations were negative. One group of 3 mink kits inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate of affected mink developed clinical signs and histological lesions similar to those observed in naturally infected mink. Based on the histopathological features, it is postulated that the disease is caused by a yet unidentified virus.

    AB - An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalomyelitis was found in the affected kits. The lesions were most severe in the brainstem and cerebellum and consisted of neuronal degeneration and necrosis, neuronophagia, focal and diffuse gliosis, perivascular cuffs formed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, and segmental loss of Purkinje cells. Testing was conducted to determine the cause of the disease, including general virological investigations (virus culture, negative-staining electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction for herpesviruses, adenoviruses, pestiviruses, and coronaviruses), tests for specific viral diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice. The results of all these investigations were negative. One group of 3 mink kits inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate of affected mink developed clinical signs and histological lesions similar to those observed in naturally infected mink. Based on the histopathological features, it is postulated that the disease is caused by a yet unidentified virus.

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 16

    SP - 305

    EP - 312

    JO - Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

    JF - Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

    SN - 1040-6387

    IS - 4

    ER -