A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should allow researchers to collect data to test hypotheses about the role of climate in driving range shifts of invasive and native species. It is important to remember that the distinctions among native and alien species will be blurred under rapid global change as both types expand their ranges into novel environments. This may be particularly true in the world's boreal oceans as melting sea ice facilitates new migratory passages between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Moreover, as the ebb and flow of biodiversity intensifies under anthropogenic climate change, novel climates and communities of species will develop. Policy will not only have to address the threats of alien invasions, but also have to deal with rapid range shifts of native species and with the threats to species that are unable to adapt or move. Climate change is redefining management strategies and conservation goals and concepts.