In this article, we describe the basic principles of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP). Hyperpolarization is a technique to enhance the nuclear polarization and thereby increase the available signal in magnetic resonance (MR). We will discuss the consequences of strong non‐equilibrium nuclear spin polarization acquisition of the MR signal. The hardware requirements for clinical translation of this technology are presented. For studies that allow the use of externally administered agents, hyperpolarization offers a way to overcome normal MR sensitivity limitations, at least for a brief T 1‐dependent observation window. A 10 000 to 100 000‐fold signal‐to‐noise advantage provides an avenue for real‐time measurement of perfusion, metabolite transport, exchange, and metabolism. The principles behind these measurements, as well as the choice of agent, and progress toward the application of hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging in oncology, cardiology, and neurology are reviewed.
- Dynamic nuclear polarization
- Magnetic resonance
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging