Introducing Load Aware Neural Networks for Accurate Predictions of Raman Amplifiers

Ann Margareth Rosa Brusin, Uiara Celine de Moura, Vittorio Curri, Darko Zibar, Andrea Carena

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An ultra-fast machine learning based method for accurate predictions of gain and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise profiles of Raman amplifiers is introduced. It is an alternative to high-complexity and time-consuming standard approaches, which are based on the numerical solution of sets of nonlinear differential equations. Main relevance resides on its possible application in real-time network controllers for future multi-band optical line systems where Raman amplification will be required to cope with capacities beyond the standard C-band. Here we consider as an example the C+L-band scenario with different input load conditions: full load and partial loads. For the case of full load it has been recently shown a neural network (NN) capable of highly accurate predictions. Real optical networks are not usually operated only in full load conditions: the load can dynamically vary over time and the behavior of the Raman amplifier depends on it. In this paper we introduce a new NN model and we show its higher accuracy when the line system is not fully loaded: we define it as the load aware neural network. Applying this new approach we can predict both gain and ASE noise profiles in Raman amplifiers with high accuracy under any load conditions: we demonstrate almost 100% of maximum prediction errors to be lower than 0.5 dB.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number23
Pages (from-to)6481 - 6491
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Optical communication
  • Optical amplifiers
  • Machine learning
  • Neural networks


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