Intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in pigs induces severe sepsis as indicated by increased hypercoagulability and hepatic dysfunction

Pall S. Leifsson, Tine Iburg, Henrik E. Jensen, Jørgen S. Agerholm, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, Bo Wiinberg, Peter M. H. Heegaard, Lærke B. Astrup, Anna E. Olsson, Mette G. Skov, Bent Aalbæk, Ole L. Nielsen

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Nine pigs were inoculated intravenously once or twice with 108 Staphylococcus aureus per kilogram body weight and sacrificed 12, 24 and 48 h after inoculation. Three sham-infected pigs served as controls. Blood samples were taken for bacteriology, haematology and clinical chemistry. A necropsy was carried out and tissue samples were collected for bacteriology and histology. The onset of clinical disease was seen at 7-8 h after inoculation. The blood bacterial counts remained low throughout the study. All infected pigs developed sepsis characterized by fever, neutrophilia, increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, and decreased levels of serum iron. The CRP and IL-6 levels peaked at 36 h, whereas IL-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha showed no obvious changes. Thromboelastography showed increasing hypercoagulability from 12 h and onwards, whereas the platelet numbers declined slightly throughout the experiment. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were elevated at 24 and 36 h. In conclusion, sepsis and severe sepsis were induced as evidenced by dysfunction of the blood clotting system and the liver.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalF E M S Microbiology Letters
    Volume309
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)208-216
    ISSN0378-1097
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • Clinical chemistry
    • Blood clotting
    • Severe sepsis
    • Liver
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Animal model

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