Interface engineering of functionally graded steel-steel composites by laser powder bed fusion

Venkata K. Nadimpalli*, Oleg V. Mishin, Meimei Lin, Thomas L. Christiansen, David B. Pedersen, Yubin Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    160 Downloads (Pure)


    In this study, the manufacturability of new types of steel-steel composites on an open-architecture laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) system is demonstrated. A hard martensitic stainless tool steel 440C and a soft austenitic stainless steel 316L are combined in a “multi-material” component with discrete and continuous material gradients. Interface engineering is accomplished through a heat treatment to induce phase transformation. A designed distribution of carbides/carbonitrides and local martensitic transformation lead to controllable variations in hardness. Hence, the compositionally-graded component is converted into a functionally-graded composite. The concept showcases the potential for selectively engineering the properties of steel-steel additively manufactured composites.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalManufacturing Letters
    Pages (from-to)46-49
    Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021


    • Additive manufacturing
    • Compositionally-graded materials
    • Functionally-graded materials
    • High-carbon martensitic steels
    • Steel-steel composites


    Dive into the research topics of 'Interface engineering of functionally graded steel-steel composites by laser powder bed fusion'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this