Interdependence of initial cell density, drug concentration and exposure time revealed by real-time impedance spectroscopic cytotoxicity assay

Claudia Caviglia, Kinga Zor, Silvia Canepa, M. Carminati, Layla Bashir Larsen, R. Raiteri, Thomas Lars Andresen, Arto Heiskanen, Jenny Emnéus

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    We investigated the combined effect of the initial cell density (12 500, 35 000, 75 000, and 100 000 cells cm−2) and concentration of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin on HeLa cells by performing timedependent cytotoxicity assays using real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A correlation between the rate of cell death and the initial cell seeding density was found at 2.5 μM doxorubicin concentration, whereas this was not observed at 5 or 100 μM. By sensing the changes in the cell–substrate interaction using impedance spectroscopy under static conditions, the onset of cytotoxicity was observed 5 h earlier than when using a standard colorimetric end-point assay (MTS) which measures changes in the mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, with the MTS assay no cytotoxicity was observed after 15 h of incubation with 2.5 μM doxorubicin, whereas the impedance showed at this time point cell viability that was below 25%. These results indicate that impedance detection reveals cytotoxic events undetectable when using the MTS assay, highlighting the importance of combining impedance detection with traditional drug toxicity assays towards a more in depth understanding of the effect of anti-cancer drugs on in vitro assays. Moreover, the detection of doxorubicin induced toxicity determined with impedance under static conditions proved to be 6 times faster than in perfusion culture.
    Original languageEnglish
    Issue number10
    Pages (from-to)3623-3629
    Number of pages7
    Publication statusPublished - 2015

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