Interactions in NOX chemistry during fluidized bed co-combustion of residual biomass and sewage sludge

Burak Ulusoy, Bozidar Anicic, Weigang Lin, Bona Lu, Wei Wang, Kim Dam-Johansen, Hao Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This work investigates the interactions in NOX chemistry during biomass co-combustion in a continuous lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Co-combustion experiments were performed at air staged and unstaged conditions, and the gas composition in the flue gas and within the reactor was measured. The used biomass fuels were straw, sunflower husk, sewage sludge, and sunflower seed. Based on the NO concentration in the flue gas, straw-sunflower husk and straw-sunflower seed co-combustion were additive, while co-combustion of straw and sewage sludge revealed a synergy effect. The main cause was the presence of sewage sludge ash, which could catalyse the formation of NO from NH3 and HNCO, and possibly HCN. The catalytic effect of the ash increased with lower ash preparation temperature and better mixing of the ash with straw. During straw-sewage sludge co-combustion, the NH3 initially released from sewage sludge favoured the reduction of NO, while at later stages, when a significant amount of ash accumulated in the bed, the catalytic oxidation of NH3 to NO was dominant. Compared to air unstaged conditions, the NO emission was reduced and the impact of ash on the nitrogen chemistry was less pronounced at air staged conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120431
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Biomass
  • Co-combustion
  • Fluidized bed
  • NO
  • Sewage sludge

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