Interaction effects of energy efficiency policies: A review

Catharina Wiese*, Anders Larsen, Lise Lotte Pade

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Increasing energy efficiency and savings will play a key role in the achievement of the climate and energy targets in the European Union (EU). To meet the EU’s objectives for greenhouse gas emission reductions, renewable energy use and energy efficiency improvements, its member states have implemented and will design and implement various energy policies. This paper reviews a range of scientific articles on the topic of policy instruments for energy efficiency and savings and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of different measures. The review demonstrates the variety of possible instruments and points to the complex policy environment, in which not a single instrument can meet the respective energy efficiency targets, but which requires a combination of multiple instruments. Therefore, the paper in particular focuses on assessing potential interactions between combinations of energy efficiency policies, i.e. the extent to which the different instruments counteract or support one another. So far, the literature on energy efficiency policy has paid only limited attention to the effect of interacting policies. This paper reviews and analyses interaction effects thus far identified with respect to factors that determine the interaction. Drawing on this review, we identify cases for interaction effects between energy efficiency policies to assess their potential existence systematically and to show future research needs.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalEnergy Efficiency
    Issue number8
    Pages (from-to)2137–2156
    Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2018


    • Energy efficiency
    • Energy savings
    • Household energy consumption
    • Industry energy consumption
    • Interaction effects
    • Policy instruments


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