Inter-personal factors affecting building occupants’ thermal tolerance at cold outdoor condition during an autumn–winter period

Shahla Ghaffari Jabbari, Aida Maleki, Mohammad Ali Kaynezhad, Bjarne W. Olesen*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    The study was conducted to investigate thermal adaptation and the impact of individual differences on developing thermal tolerance when the outdoor temperature falls below 10°C. The applicability of the predicted mean vote (PMV) model was investigated, too. The concept of occupant’s ‘Temperament’ was evaluated as a psychological-adaptation factor. Two main hypotheses were: (a) people with different temperaments would experience different thermal sensations and (b) the classic PMV- predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) model is capable of predicting the neutral sensation in heated buildings under cold outdoor temperatures. There was a direct relationship between individual temperament and clothing level as well as thermal sensation. The occupants who were assessed to have cold temperament tend to wear thicker clothes and were more sensitive to variations in indoor air temperature than others. Females with a cold temperament were more than twice as likely to be affected by indoor air temperature as those with a warm temperament. The PMV-PPD model was able to predict the mean neutral temperature in the heated buildings even when the outdoor temperature fell below 10°C. However, when occupants were able to control high indoor temperature, the percentage of true prediction of actual mean votes by the adaptive thermal heat balance model was more than that by the classic PMV model.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1420326X1986799
    JournalIndoor and Built Environment
    Issue number7
    Pages (from-to)987-1005
    Publication statusPublished - 2020


    • Thermal adaptation
    • Thermal sensation
    • Predicted mean vote-predicted percentage dissatisfied mode
    • Cool outdoor condition
    • Temperament
    • Educational buildings
    • Personality trait


    Dive into the research topics of 'Inter-personal factors affecting building occupants’ thermal tolerance at cold outdoor condition during an autumn–winter period'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this