Intake of Food Supplements, Caffeine, Green Tea and Protein Products among Young Danish Men Training in Commercial Gyms for Increasing Muscle Mass

Kirsten Pilegaard*, Anne Sophie Majgaard Uldall, Gitte Ravn-Haren

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Sixty-three men (15–35 years of age) regularly training in Danish gyms and supplement users were interviewed about the use of supplemental protein and food supplements, intake of caffeine- and (-)-epigallocathechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-containing supplements and beverages and any experienced adverse effects. Protein powder (60%), fish oil (54%) and multivitamin/mineral supplements (41%) were the most popular products. The daily supplementary protein intake (mean 0.42 g/kg body weight, users only) in adult men contributed substantially to their protein intake and exceeded the recommended allowance (0.83 g/kg body weight) for six adult participants (14%). Thirty-eight percent of the adult men exceeded the daily caffeine intake presumed to be safe (400 mg) with coffee as the main contributor. Thirty percent drank green tea and among this percentage, two participants had an extreme daily intake (1.5 and 2 -L). EGCG intake could not be estimated from the food supplements due to the lack of label information. Eighteen participants (29%) reported having experienced adverse effects but seventeen did not consult a physician or report the adverse effect to the Danish food authority. The most common adverse effects were insomnia, shaking, headache and palpitations, itching of the skin and stinging. Pre-workout products accounted for 53% of the adverse effects. Three adverse effects came after intake of two brands of supplements known to have contained substances such as 1,3-dimethylamine or derivatives of phenylethylamines previously having caused serious adverse effects.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4003
JournalFoods
Volume11
Issue number24
Number of pages20
ISSN2304-8158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Food supplements
  • Coffee
  • (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)
  • Supplementation
  • Adverse effects
  • Safety
  • 1,3-dimethylamylamine
  • Pre-workout (PWO) products
  • Jack3D
  • Craze

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