Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults

a national dietary survey

Camilla Hoppe, Rikke Juul Gøbel, Mette Kristensen, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Jeppe Matthiessen, Tue Christensen, Ellen Trolle, Sisse Fagt, Mia Linda Madsen, Steffen Husby

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. METHODS: Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. RESULTS: Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P <0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P <0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P <0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P <0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. CONCLUSION: This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume56
Pages (from-to)107-117
Number of pages11
ISSN1436-6207
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Gluten
  • Wheat
  • Oats
  • Barley
  • Rye
  • Danish
  • Adults

Cite this

Hoppe, Camilla ; Gøbel, Rikke Juul ; Kristensen, Mette ; Lind, Mads Vendelbo ; Matthiessen, Jeppe ; Christensen, Tue ; Trolle, Ellen ; Fagt, Sisse ; Madsen, Mia Linda ; Husby, Steffen. / Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults : a national dietary survey. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 56. pp. 107-117.
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title = "Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults: a national dietary survey",
abstract = "PURPOSE: Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 {\%} of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. METHODS: Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. RESULTS: Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P <0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P <0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P <0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P <0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. CONCLUSION: This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.",
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author = "Camilla Hoppe and G{\o}bel, {Rikke Juul} and Mette Kristensen and Lind, {Mads Vendelbo} and Jeppe Matthiessen and Tue Christensen and Ellen Trolle and Sisse Fagt and Madsen, {Mia Linda} and Steffen Husby",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-015-1062-3",
language = "English",
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Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults : a national dietary survey. / Hoppe, Camilla ; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Kristensen, Mette ; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Christensen, Tue; Trolle, Ellen; Fagt, Sisse; Madsen, Mia Linda; Husby, Steffen.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 56, 2017, p. 107-117.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults

T2 - a national dietary survey

AU - Hoppe, Camilla

AU - Gøbel, Rikke Juul

AU - Kristensen, Mette

AU - Lind, Mads Vendelbo

AU - Matthiessen, Jeppe

AU - Christensen, Tue

AU - Trolle, Ellen

AU - Fagt, Sisse

AU - Madsen, Mia Linda

AU - Husby, Steffen

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - PURPOSE: Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. METHODS: Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. RESULTS: Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P <0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P <0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P <0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P <0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. CONCLUSION: This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.

AB - PURPOSE: Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. METHODS: Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. RESULTS: Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P <0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P <0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P <0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P <0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. CONCLUSION: This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.

KW - Gluten

KW - Wheat

KW - Oats

KW - Barley

KW - Rye

KW - Danish

KW - Adults

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-015-1062-3

DO - 10.1007/s00394-015-1062-3

M3 - Journal article

VL - 56

SP - 107

EP - 117

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

ER -