Insights into the mode of flavin mononucleotide binding and catalytic mechanism of bacterial chromate reductases: A molecular dynamics simulation study

Sukanta Kumar Pradhan, Nihar Ranjan Singh, Budheswar Dehury, Debashis Panda, Mahendra Kumar Modi, Hrudayanath Thatoi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Enzymes from natural sources protect the environment via complex biological mechanisms, which aid in reductive immobilization of toxic metals including chromium. Nevertheless, progress was being made in elucidating high-resolution crystal structures of reductases and their binding with flavin mononucleotide (FMN) to understand the underlying mechanism of chromate reduction. Therefore, herein, we employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, principal component analysis (PCA), and binding free energy calculations to understand the dynamics behavior of these enzymes with FMN. Six representative chromate reductases in monomeric and dimeric forms were selected to study the mode, dynamics, and energetic component that drive the FMN binding process. As evidenced by MD simulation, FMN prefers to bind the cervix formed between the catalytic domain surrounded by strong conserved hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, and hydrophobic contacts. The slight movement and reorientation of FMN resulted in breakage of some crucial H-bonds and other nonbonded contacts, which were well compensated with newly formed H-bonds, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. The critical residues aiding in tight anchoring of FMN within dimer were found to be strongly conserved in the bacterial system. The molecular mechanics combined with the Poisson-Boltzmann surface area binding free energy of the monomer portrayed that the van der Waals and electrostatic energy contribute significantly to the total free energy, where, the polar solvation energy opposes the binding of FMN. The proposed proximity relationships between enzyme and FMN binding site presented in this study will open up better avenues to engineer enzymes with optimized chromate reductase activity for sustainable bioremediation of heavy metals.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cellular Biochemistry
Volume120
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)16990-17005
Number of pages16
ISSN0730-2312
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Bioremediation
  • Chromate reductases
  • Chromium
  • Flavin mononucleotide
  • Free energy
  • MD simulations

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