Insect infestation is a major problem in agriculture and forestry addressed primarily with insecticide sprays or genetically modified plant breeds. The problem has aggravated in the last decade due to the emergence of resistance among key insect pests and the removal of multiple insecticides from the market due to their toxicity. Pheromone-based methods for pest management have been in use for over 30 years, though primarily for high-value fruits due to the high cost of the chemical synthesis and pheromone application. As biotechnology solutions for pheromone production are emerging, pheromones will become an economically competitive technology for pest management also in low-value row crops. This review describes the advances in the discovery of pheromone biosynthetic pathways and the recent engineering of yeasts and plants for recombinant production of pheromones.