Inorganic-Based Printed Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

Avishek Sarbajna, Andres Georg Rösch, Leonard Franke, Uli Lemmer, Md Mofasser Mallick*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review


One of the simplest ways to generate electric power from waste heat is thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion. So far, most of the research on thermoelectrics has focused on inorganic bulk TE materials and their device applications. However, high production costs per power output and limited shape conformity hinder applications of state-of-the-art thermoelectric devices (TEDs). In recent years, printed thermoelectrics has emerged as an exciting pathway for their potential in the production of low-cost shape-conformable TEDs. Although several inorganic bulk TE materials with high performance are successfully developed, achieving high performance in inorganic-based printed TE materials is still a challenge. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made in printed thermoelectrics in recent years. In this review article, it is started with an introduction signifying the importance of printed thermoelectrics followed by a discussion of theoretical concepts of thermoelectricity, from fundamental transport phenomena to device efficiency. Afterward, the general process of inorganic TE ink formulation is summarized, and the current development of the inorganic and hybrid inks with the mention of their TE properties and their influencing factors is elaborated. In the end, TEDs with different architecture and geometries are highlighted by documenting their performance and fabrication techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200980
JournalAdvanced Engineering Materials
Number of pages25
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Chalcogenides
  • Energy harvesting
  • Printed thermoelectrics
  • Tellurides
  • Thermoelectric Generators


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