Innovative fully integrated transcritical R744 refrigeration systems for a HFC-free future of supermarkets in warm and hot climates

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The regulatory pressures on environmentally deleterious refrigerants have been growing more intense, prompting CO2 to draw ever-widening attraction as the sole working fluid (R744) in supermarket applications. Direct space heating and cooling is considered as one of the most appealing techniques to promote the diffusion of “CO2 only”systems in warm and hot climates. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the energy and environmental benefits related to its adoption have not been estimated yet. The results of this work revealed that “CO2 only”units implementing direct space heating and cooling offer an annual energy saving by up to 33.3% as well as a reduction in carbon footprint by up to 89.5% compared to the systems using hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in high ambient temperature countries. It could be concluded that direct space heating and cooling is a very good prospect to lead to a HFC-free future of supermarkets, even in hot climates.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Refrigeration
Volume108
Pages (from-to)283-310
ISSN0140-7007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • CO2 refrigeration system
  • HFC refrigeration system
  • Direct space heating and cooling
  • Overfed evaporator
  • System integration
  • Two-phase ejector

Cite this

@article{c88949bcedeb47c2bd2228bc9c286054,
title = "Innovative fully integrated transcritical R744 refrigeration systems for a HFC-free future of supermarkets in warm and hot climates",
abstract = "The regulatory pressures on environmentally deleterious refrigerants have been growing more intense, prompting CO2 to draw ever-widening attraction as the sole working fluid (R744) in supermarket applications. Direct space heating and cooling is considered as one of the most appealing techniques to promote the diffusion of “CO2 only”systems in warm and hot climates. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the energy and environmental benefits related to its adoption have not been estimated yet. The results of this work revealed that “CO2 only”units implementing direct space heating and cooling offer an annual energy saving by up to 33.3{\%} as well as a reduction in carbon footprint by up to 89.5{\%} compared to the systems using hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in high ambient temperature countries. It could be concluded that direct space heating and cooling is a very good prospect to lead to a HFC-free future of supermarkets, even in hot climates.",
keywords = "CO2 refrigeration system, HFC refrigeration system, Direct space heating and cooling, Overfed evaporator, System integration, Two-phase ejector",
author = "Paride Gullo",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2019.09.001",
language = "English",
volume = "108",
pages = "283--310",
journal = "International Journal of Refrigeration",
issn = "0140-7007",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Innovative fully integrated transcritical R744 refrigeration systems for a HFC-free future of supermarkets in warm and hot climates. / Gullo, Paride.

In: International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 108, 2019, p. 283-310.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Innovative fully integrated transcritical R744 refrigeration systems for a HFC-free future of supermarkets in warm and hot climates

AU - Gullo, Paride

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The regulatory pressures on environmentally deleterious refrigerants have been growing more intense, prompting CO2 to draw ever-widening attraction as the sole working fluid (R744) in supermarket applications. Direct space heating and cooling is considered as one of the most appealing techniques to promote the diffusion of “CO2 only”systems in warm and hot climates. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the energy and environmental benefits related to its adoption have not been estimated yet. The results of this work revealed that “CO2 only”units implementing direct space heating and cooling offer an annual energy saving by up to 33.3% as well as a reduction in carbon footprint by up to 89.5% compared to the systems using hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in high ambient temperature countries. It could be concluded that direct space heating and cooling is a very good prospect to lead to a HFC-free future of supermarkets, even in hot climates.

AB - The regulatory pressures on environmentally deleterious refrigerants have been growing more intense, prompting CO2 to draw ever-widening attraction as the sole working fluid (R744) in supermarket applications. Direct space heating and cooling is considered as one of the most appealing techniques to promote the diffusion of “CO2 only”systems in warm and hot climates. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the energy and environmental benefits related to its adoption have not been estimated yet. The results of this work revealed that “CO2 only”units implementing direct space heating and cooling offer an annual energy saving by up to 33.3% as well as a reduction in carbon footprint by up to 89.5% compared to the systems using hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in high ambient temperature countries. It could be concluded that direct space heating and cooling is a very good prospect to lead to a HFC-free future of supermarkets, even in hot climates.

KW - CO2 refrigeration system

KW - HFC refrigeration system

KW - Direct space heating and cooling

KW - Overfed evaporator

KW - System integration

KW - Two-phase ejector

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2019.09.001

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JO - International Journal of Refrigeration

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