Inherent mineralization of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in unsaturated zone and aquifers – Effect of initial concentrations and adaptation

Gry Sander Janniche, Liselotte Clausen, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

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Abstract

The dichlobenil metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide) is frequently detected in aquifers e.g. in Denmark despite the mother compound dichlobenil was banned here since 1997. BAM mineralization was investigated at environmentally relevant concentrations in sediment samples. Undisturbed sediment cores with known dichlobenil application were collected from topsoil to 8.5 m below surface resulting in 57 samples hereof 4 aquifer samples. Mineralization was only substantial (>10%) in the uppermost meter of the unsaturated zone. Microbial adaptation, observed as faster mineralization in pre-exposed than in pristine sediments from the same location, was only evident in sandy sediment where dichlobenil was still present, but not in clayey sediments. Higher initial concentrations (1–5000 μg/kg) did not stimulate mineralization in pristine clayey or sandy sediments, or in pre-exposed sand. However, in pre-exposed clay mineralization was stimulated at high concentrations. Furthermore BAM was for the first time mineralized in aerobic aquifer sediments from different BAM-contaminated groundwater locations. BAM mineralization in subsurface and groundwater was demonstrated.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume159
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)2801-2807
ISSN0269-7491
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • Herbicide
  • Soil profiles
  • Subsurface
  • Microbial degradation

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