Information and Communications Systems for Control-by-Price of Distributed Energy Resources and Flexible Demand

Preben Nyeng, Jacob Østergaard

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The control-by-price concept fits well with controlling small-scale generation, storage and demand. In this paper, we investigate the required information and communications systems that are needed to realize the control-by-price concept for such units. We first present a proposal for overall infrastructure and subsystem design and secondly focus on the design and implementation of the end-user price-responsive controller, interfaces, and communications. The design and its applicability on existing devices is verified through laboratory tests with two cases: electric space heating thermostat control and a small combined heat and power unit. The results show that the price-responsive controller reduces the end user’s electricity cost, or increases his income respectively, by about 7%. At the same time, the price-responsive controller provides an interface for the transmission system operator to utilize distributed energy resources and flexible demand as a regulating resource. Furthermore, the results illustrate and verify the applicability of the concept and the proposed infrastructure for controlling distributed energy resources and flexible demand.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number1949-3053
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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  • Real-time market
  • Control-by-price
  • Distributed energy resources
  • Micro-CHP
  • Power system balancing

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