Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators

Bogi Bech Jensen, Asger Bech Abrahamsen, Matthew Lee Henriksen

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Abstract

Rare-earth elements have become very valuable to many industries, including the renewable energy industry. As their usage has spread, their demand has increased dramatically. At present, the vast majority of rare earth elements are mined in China. China is also the world‟s leading consumer of rare earth material, and there are indications that Chinese rare earth exports will decrease in the near future as China seeks to maintain a sufficient supply of these materials. The magnetic properties of some particular rare-earth elements have made them very useful in producing high power density electrical machines. Such machines are utilized in applications such as electric cars, and wind turbines. This paper will examine the rare earth supply issue, in order to comment on its relevance to the wind turbine industry. The wind turbine topologies which are currently being used are compared, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages in serving as long term solutions for offshore wind farms. Finally, a direct drive induction generator and a high temperature superconducting generator topology, which respectively are not and very little dependent on rare earth elements, are presented as candidates for use in future offshore wind turbines.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnergy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century : Proceedings
Number of pages420
Place of PublicationRoskilde
PublisherRisø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy
Publication date2011
Pages227-237
ISBN (Print)978-87-550-3903-2
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventRisø International Energy Conference 2011 - Risø DTU, Roskilde, Denmark
Duration: 10 May 201112 May 2011

Conference

ConferenceRisø International Energy Conference 2011
LocationRisø DTU
CountryDenmark
CityRoskilde
Period10/05/201112/05/2011
SeriesDenmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R
Number1776(EN)
ISSN0106-2840

Keywords

  • Offshore wind energy
  • Risø-R-1776(EN)
  • Risø-R-1776

Cite this

Jensen, B. B., Abrahamsen, A. B., & Henriksen, M. L. (2011). Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators. In Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century : Proceedings (pp. 227-237). Roskilde: Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy. Denmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R, No. 1776(EN)
Jensen, Bogi Bech ; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech ; Henriksen, Matthew Lee. / Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators. Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century : Proceedings. Roskilde : Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, 2011. pp. 227-237 (Denmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R; No. 1776(EN)).
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title = "Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators",
abstract = "Rare-earth elements have become very valuable to many industries, including the renewable energy industry. As their usage has spread, their demand has increased dramatically. At present, the vast majority of rare earth elements are mined in China. China is also the world‟s leading consumer of rare earth material, and there are indications that Chinese rare earth exports will decrease in the near future as China seeks to maintain a sufficient supply of these materials. The magnetic properties of some particular rare-earth elements have made them very useful in producing high power density electrical machines. Such machines are utilized in applications such as electric cars, and wind turbines. This paper will examine the rare earth supply issue, in order to comment on its relevance to the wind turbine industry. The wind turbine topologies which are currently being used are compared, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages in serving as long term solutions for offshore wind farms. Finally, a direct drive induction generator and a high temperature superconducting generator topology, which respectively are not and very little dependent on rare earth elements, are presented as candidates for use in future offshore wind turbines.",
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Jensen, BB, Abrahamsen, AB & Henriksen, ML 2011, Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators. in Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century : Proceedings. Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde, Denmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R, no. 1776(EN), pp. 227-237, Risø International Energy Conference 2011, Roskilde, Denmark, 10/05/2011.

Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators. / Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Henriksen, Matthew Lee.

Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century : Proceedings. Roskilde : Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, 2011. p. 227-237 (Denmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R; No. 1776(EN)).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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N2 - Rare-earth elements have become very valuable to many industries, including the renewable energy industry. As their usage has spread, their demand has increased dramatically. At present, the vast majority of rare earth elements are mined in China. China is also the world‟s leading consumer of rare earth material, and there are indications that Chinese rare earth exports will decrease in the near future as China seeks to maintain a sufficient supply of these materials. The magnetic properties of some particular rare-earth elements have made them very useful in producing high power density electrical machines. Such machines are utilized in applications such as electric cars, and wind turbines. This paper will examine the rare earth supply issue, in order to comment on its relevance to the wind turbine industry. The wind turbine topologies which are currently being used are compared, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages in serving as long term solutions for offshore wind farms. Finally, a direct drive induction generator and a high temperature superconducting generator topology, which respectively are not and very little dependent on rare earth elements, are presented as candidates for use in future offshore wind turbines.

AB - Rare-earth elements have become very valuable to many industries, including the renewable energy industry. As their usage has spread, their demand has increased dramatically. At present, the vast majority of rare earth elements are mined in China. China is also the world‟s leading consumer of rare earth material, and there are indications that Chinese rare earth exports will decrease in the near future as China seeks to maintain a sufficient supply of these materials. The magnetic properties of some particular rare-earth elements have made them very useful in producing high power density electrical machines. Such machines are utilized in applications such as electric cars, and wind turbines. This paper will examine the rare earth supply issue, in order to comment on its relevance to the wind turbine industry. The wind turbine topologies which are currently being used are compared, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages in serving as long term solutions for offshore wind farms. Finally, a direct drive induction generator and a high temperature superconducting generator topology, which respectively are not and very little dependent on rare earth elements, are presented as candidates for use in future offshore wind turbines.

KW - Offshore wind energy

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Jensen BB, Abrahamsen AB, Henriksen ML. Influence of Rare Earth Element Supply on Future Offshore Wind Turbine Generators. In Energy Systems and Technologies for the coming Century : Proceedings. Roskilde: Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy. 2011. p. 227-237. (Denmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R; No. 1776(EN)).