Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low-Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gaseous Nitriding

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Abstract

This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low-temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial stainless steels: EN 1.4369 and AISI 304. The materials were plastically deformed to several levels of equivalent strain by conventional tensile straining, plane strain compression, and shear. Gaseous nitriding of the strained material was performed in ammonia gas at atmospheric pressure at various temperatures. Microstructural characterization of the as-deformed state and the nitrided case produced included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected-light microscopy, and microhardness testing. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that the presence of plastic deformation has a significant influence on the morphology of the nitrided case. The presence of strain-induced martensite favors the formation of CrN, while a high dislocation density in a fully austenitic structure does not lead to such premature nucleation of CrN.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Volume46A
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)2579-2590
ISSN1073-5623
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Atmospheric temperature
  • Austenitic stainless steel
  • Hardening
  • Nitriding
  • Plastic deformation
  • Stainless steel
  • Strain
  • Temperature
  • X ray diffraction analysis
  • Austenitic structure
  • Expanded austenite
  • High dislocation density
  • Low temperature surface hardening
  • Micro-structural characterization
  • Microhardness testing
  • Plane strain compression
  • Strain-induced martensite
  • Low temperature effects

Cite this

@article{1f17e99a35ca4b4aa637329e8158303c,
title = "Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low-Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gaseous Nitriding",
abstract = "This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low-temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial stainless steels: EN 1.4369 and AISI 304. The materials were plastically deformed to several levels of equivalent strain by conventional tensile straining, plane strain compression, and shear. Gaseous nitriding of the strained material was performed in ammonia gas at atmospheric pressure at various temperatures. Microstructural characterization of the as-deformed state and the nitrided case produced included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected-light microscopy, and microhardness testing. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that the presence of plastic deformation has a significant influence on the morphology of the nitrided case. The presence of strain-induced martensite favors the formation of CrN, while a high dislocation density in a fully austenitic structure does not lead to such premature nucleation of CrN.",
keywords = "Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric temperature, Austenitic stainless steel, Hardening, Nitriding, Plastic deformation, Stainless steel, Strain, Temperature, X ray diffraction analysis, Austenitic structure, Expanded austenite, High dislocation density, Low temperature surface hardening, Micro-structural characterization, Microhardness testing, Plane strain compression, Strain-induced martensite, Low temperature effects",
author = "Federico Bottoli and Grethe Winther and Christiansen, {Thomas Lundin} and Somers, {Marcel A. J.}",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1007/s11661-015-2832-5",
language = "English",
volume = "46A",
pages = "2579--2590",
journal = "Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science",
issn = "1073-5623",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low-Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gaseous Nitriding

AU - Bottoli, Federico

AU - Winther, Grethe

AU - Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

AU - Somers, Marcel A. J.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low-temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial stainless steels: EN 1.4369 and AISI 304. The materials were plastically deformed to several levels of equivalent strain by conventional tensile straining, plane strain compression, and shear. Gaseous nitriding of the strained material was performed in ammonia gas at atmospheric pressure at various temperatures. Microstructural characterization of the as-deformed state and the nitrided case produced included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected-light microscopy, and microhardness testing. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that the presence of plastic deformation has a significant influence on the morphology of the nitrided case. The presence of strain-induced martensite favors the formation of CrN, while a high dislocation density in a fully austenitic structure does not lead to such premature nucleation of CrN.

AB - This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low-temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial stainless steels: EN 1.4369 and AISI 304. The materials were plastically deformed to several levels of equivalent strain by conventional tensile straining, plane strain compression, and shear. Gaseous nitriding of the strained material was performed in ammonia gas at atmospheric pressure at various temperatures. Microstructural characterization of the as-deformed state and the nitrided case produced included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected-light microscopy, and microhardness testing. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that the presence of plastic deformation has a significant influence on the morphology of the nitrided case. The presence of strain-induced martensite favors the formation of CrN, while a high dislocation density in a fully austenitic structure does not lead to such premature nucleation of CrN.

KW - Atmospheric pressure

KW - Atmospheric temperature

KW - Austenitic stainless steel

KW - Hardening

KW - Nitriding

KW - Plastic deformation

KW - Stainless steel

KW - Strain

KW - Temperature

KW - X ray diffraction analysis

KW - Austenitic structure

KW - Expanded austenite

KW - High dislocation density

KW - Low temperature surface hardening

KW - Micro-structural characterization

KW - Microhardness testing

KW - Plane strain compression

KW - Strain-induced martensite

KW - Low temperature effects

U2 - 10.1007/s11661-015-2832-5

DO - 10.1007/s11661-015-2832-5

M3 - Journal article

VL - 46A

SP - 2579

EP - 2590

JO - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

JF - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

SN - 1073-5623

IS - 6

ER -