The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air-liquid partition coefficients K (37degreesC) of a total of 43 aroma compounds were determined in pure water and in the lambda-carrageenan solutions by static headspace gas chromatography. Mass transfer of the aroma compounds in water and in the thickened lambda-carrageenan solutions which had a wide viscosity range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found, except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma compounds, with the largest effect for the most volatile compounds. However, none of the effects was of a magnitude similar to the obtained changes in the macroscopic viscosity, and the suppressing effects are therefore attributable to the thickener and not the physical properties of the increasingly viscous systems.
|Journal||Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|