Individual variation in aerobic scope affects modeled vertical foraging migration in Atlantic cod Gadhus morhua, but only in moderate hypoxia

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Abstract

Vertical migration is the most widespread migration in the aquatic world, yet the mechanisms limiting the extent of this behavior are largely unknown. In the Baltic Sea, some Atlantic cod Gadus morhua perform vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic demersal zones where aerobic metabolism is insufficient to cover energy requirements. After foraging, the fish return to better oxygenated waters for physiological recovery and digestion. To test the influence of phenotypic variation in aerobic scope (AS; the difference between the maximum and the minimum metabolic rate) on the capacity to migrate into severely hypoxic zones, we incorporated AS into a state-dependent individual-based model simulating vertical foraging migrations of G. morhua. We found little effect of individual variation in AS on the capacity for vertical migration when the zone used for physiological recovery was normoxic. In contrast, when there was moderate hypoxia (30% air saturation, O-2sat) in the zone used for physiological recovery, the high AS phenotype had a clear advantage because it could forage 3-4 times longer in the severely hypoxic (16% O-2sat, i.e. below the threshold for aerobic metabolism of the species) demersal zone compared to the low AS phenotype. Thus, phenotypic variation in AS is only important when there is moderate hypoxia in the zone used for physiological recovery, suggesting that the influence of AS variation on the capacity for vertical migration is context dependent. We propose that elevated AS may be evolutionarily favorable when hypoxia prevails in the water column.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMarine Ecology - Progress Series
Volume599
Pages (from-to)201-208
ISSN0171-8630
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • ECOLOGY
  • MARINE
  • OCEANOGRAPHY
  • POSTHYPOXIC OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION
  • GADUS-MORHUA
  • SWIMMING PERFORMANCE
  • MARINE TELEOSTS
  • METABOLIC SCOPE
  • RAINBOW-TROUT
  • BALTIC SEA
  • TEMPERATURE
  • BEHAVIOR
  • ONCORHYNCHUS
  • Physiology
  • Behavior
  • Baltic Sea
  • Bioenergetics
  • Aerobic scope
  • Hypoxia
  • Gadus morhua
  • Individual-based model

Cite this

@article{fb018e6a7c604ba9991838839b1f68c3,
title = "Individual variation in aerobic scope affects modeled vertical foraging migration in Atlantic cod Gadhus morhua, but only in moderate hypoxia",
abstract = "Vertical migration is the most widespread migration in the aquatic world, yet the mechanisms limiting the extent of this behavior are largely unknown. In the Baltic Sea, some Atlantic cod Gadus morhua perform vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic demersal zones where aerobic metabolism is insufficient to cover energy requirements. After foraging, the fish return to better oxygenated waters for physiological recovery and digestion. To test the influence of phenotypic variation in aerobic scope (AS; the difference between the maximum and the minimum metabolic rate) on the capacity to migrate into severely hypoxic zones, we incorporated AS into a state-dependent individual-based model simulating vertical foraging migrations of G. morhua. We found little effect of individual variation in AS on the capacity for vertical migration when the zone used for physiological recovery was normoxic. In contrast, when there was moderate hypoxia (30{\%} air saturation, O-2sat) in the zone used for physiological recovery, the high AS phenotype had a clear advantage because it could forage 3-4 times longer in the severely hypoxic (16{\%} O-2sat, i.e. below the threshold for aerobic metabolism of the species) demersal zone compared to the low AS phenotype. Thus, phenotypic variation in AS is only important when there is moderate hypoxia in the zone used for physiological recovery, suggesting that the influence of AS variation on the capacity for vertical migration is context dependent. We propose that elevated AS may be evolutionarily favorable when hypoxia prevails in the water column.",
keywords = "ECOLOGY, MARINE, OCEANOGRAPHY, POSTHYPOXIC OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION, GADUS-MORHUA, SWIMMING PERFORMANCE, MARINE TELEOSTS, METABOLIC SCOPE, RAINBOW-TROUT, BALTIC SEA, TEMPERATURE, BEHAVIOR, ONCORHYNCHUS, Physiology, Behavior, Baltic Sea, Bioenergetics, Aerobic scope, Hypoxia, Gadus morhua, Individual-based model",
author = "Behrens, {Jane W.} and Svendsen, {Jon Christian} and Stefan Neuenfeldt and Andersen, {Niels Gerner} and {van Deurs}, Mikael",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3354/meps12629",
language = "English",
volume = "599",
pages = "201--208",
journal = "Marine Ecology - Progress Series",
issn = "0171-8630",
publisher = "Inter Research",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Individual variation in aerobic scope affects modeled vertical foraging migration in Atlantic cod Gadhus morhua, but only in moderate hypoxia

AU - Behrens, Jane W.

AU - Svendsen, Jon Christian

AU - Neuenfeldt, Stefan

AU - Andersen, Niels Gerner

AU - van Deurs, Mikael

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Vertical migration is the most widespread migration in the aquatic world, yet the mechanisms limiting the extent of this behavior are largely unknown. In the Baltic Sea, some Atlantic cod Gadus morhua perform vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic demersal zones where aerobic metabolism is insufficient to cover energy requirements. After foraging, the fish return to better oxygenated waters for physiological recovery and digestion. To test the influence of phenotypic variation in aerobic scope (AS; the difference between the maximum and the minimum metabolic rate) on the capacity to migrate into severely hypoxic zones, we incorporated AS into a state-dependent individual-based model simulating vertical foraging migrations of G. morhua. We found little effect of individual variation in AS on the capacity for vertical migration when the zone used for physiological recovery was normoxic. In contrast, when there was moderate hypoxia (30% air saturation, O-2sat) in the zone used for physiological recovery, the high AS phenotype had a clear advantage because it could forage 3-4 times longer in the severely hypoxic (16% O-2sat, i.e. below the threshold for aerobic metabolism of the species) demersal zone compared to the low AS phenotype. Thus, phenotypic variation in AS is only important when there is moderate hypoxia in the zone used for physiological recovery, suggesting that the influence of AS variation on the capacity for vertical migration is context dependent. We propose that elevated AS may be evolutionarily favorable when hypoxia prevails in the water column.

AB - Vertical migration is the most widespread migration in the aquatic world, yet the mechanisms limiting the extent of this behavior are largely unknown. In the Baltic Sea, some Atlantic cod Gadus morhua perform vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic demersal zones where aerobic metabolism is insufficient to cover energy requirements. After foraging, the fish return to better oxygenated waters for physiological recovery and digestion. To test the influence of phenotypic variation in aerobic scope (AS; the difference between the maximum and the minimum metabolic rate) on the capacity to migrate into severely hypoxic zones, we incorporated AS into a state-dependent individual-based model simulating vertical foraging migrations of G. morhua. We found little effect of individual variation in AS on the capacity for vertical migration when the zone used for physiological recovery was normoxic. In contrast, when there was moderate hypoxia (30% air saturation, O-2sat) in the zone used for physiological recovery, the high AS phenotype had a clear advantage because it could forage 3-4 times longer in the severely hypoxic (16% O-2sat, i.e. below the threshold for aerobic metabolism of the species) demersal zone compared to the low AS phenotype. Thus, phenotypic variation in AS is only important when there is moderate hypoxia in the zone used for physiological recovery, suggesting that the influence of AS variation on the capacity for vertical migration is context dependent. We propose that elevated AS may be evolutionarily favorable when hypoxia prevails in the water column.

KW - ECOLOGY

KW - MARINE

KW - OCEANOGRAPHY

KW - POSTHYPOXIC OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION

KW - GADUS-MORHUA

KW - SWIMMING PERFORMANCE

KW - MARINE TELEOSTS

KW - METABOLIC SCOPE

KW - RAINBOW-TROUT

KW - BALTIC SEA

KW - TEMPERATURE

KW - BEHAVIOR

KW - ONCORHYNCHUS

KW - Physiology

KW - Behavior

KW - Baltic Sea

KW - Bioenergetics

KW - Aerobic scope

KW - Hypoxia

KW - Gadus morhua

KW - Individual-based model

U2 - 10.3354/meps12629

DO - 10.3354/meps12629

M3 - Journal article

VL - 599

SP - 201

EP - 208

JO - Marine Ecology - Progress Series

JF - Marine Ecology - Progress Series

SN - 0171-8630

ER -