Inclusions of flavonoid 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in Sorghum bicolor self-organize into spherical structures

Kirsten A. Nielsen, Charlotte H. Gotfredsen, Morten J. Buch-Pedersen, Henriette Ammitzbøll, Ole Mattsson, Jens Øllgaard Duus, Ralph L. Nicholson

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) produces 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins. They accumulate as inclusions in cells and inhibit infection in a site-specific response. Inclusions are self-organizing 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. In aqueous solution, protons and acetate counter-ions condition self-stacking. Non-vesicular cytoplasmic trafficking of inclusions to sites of ingress is discussed. It is suggested that rearrangements in plant cells under attack direct accumulation of inclusions to penetration sites. Nuclear migration, cytoplasmic streaming and intracellular pH provide an environment for inclusion trafficking and release of the phytoalexins. Luteolinidin, when self-organized as pigmented inclusions, mediates disruption of plant and fungal plasma membranes as well as reconstructed bilayer liposomes. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysiological and Molecular Plant Pathology
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)187-196
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Science/technology
  • 9-B risiko
  • Bipolaris
  • Cochliobolus heterostrophus
  • Graminicola
  • Sorghum bicolor
  • 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin
  • Apigenididin
  • Appresoria
  • Bilayers
  • Bipolaris maydis
  • Colletothricum graminicola
  • Confocal microscopy
  • Flavonoid
  • Germ tube
  • Inclusions
  • Liposomes
  • Luteolinidin
  • Phytoalexin
  • Protoplast
  • SITE
  • phytoalexin
  • 3-deoxyanthocyanidin
  • liposomes
  • inclusions
  • luteolinidin
  • flavonoid
  • apigenididin
  • appresoria
  • germ tube
  • bilayers
  • confocal microscopy
  • protoplast
  • cytoplasmic streaming
  • nuclear migration
  • Fungi Plantae (Fungi, Microorganisms, Nonvascular Plants, Plants) - Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes [15500] Bipolaris maydis species pathogen
  • Monocotyledones Angiospermae Spermatophyta Plantae (Angiosperms, Monocots, Plants, Spermatophytes, Vascular Plants) - Gramineae [25305] Sorghum bicolor species grain crop
  • luteolinidin 1154-78-5
  • 10060, Biochemistry studies - General
  • 51522, Plant physiology - Chemical constituents
  • 52502, Agronomy - Miscellaneous and mixed crops
  • 52504, Agronomy - Grain crops
  • Agriculture
  • bilayer liposome
  • plasma membrane
  • Agronomy
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
  • Infection

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