Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

Mohammad Ali Fotouhi Ghazvini, Pedro Faria, Sergio Ramos, Hugo Morais, Zita Vale

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Following the deregulation experience of retail electricity markets in most countries, the majority of the new entrants of the liberalized retail market were pure REP (retail electricity providers). These entities were subject to financial risks because of the unexpected price variations, price spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also taken into account with a scenario-based approach. The principal advantage of this model for REPs is reducing the risk of financial losses in DAMs, and the main benefit for the whole system is market power mitigation by virtually increasing the price elasticity of demand and reducing the peak demand.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)786-799
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Demand response
  • Electricity market
  • Financial risk
  • Market power
  • Retail market
  • Stochastic programming
  • Commerce
  • Costs
  • Deregulation
  • Distributed power generation
  • Economic analysis
  • Electric energy storage
  • Electric load forecasting
  • Finance
  • Losses
  • Power markets
  • Risk management
  • Sales
  • Stochastic systems
  • Financial risks
  • Market Power
  • Financial markets


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