In-vivo study of genotoxic and inflammatory effects of the organo-modified Montmorillonite Cloisite® 30B

Anoop Kumar Sharma, Alicja Mortensen, Bjørn Schmidt, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Niels Hadrup, Erik Huusfeldt Larsen, Mona-Lise Binderup

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Because of the increasing use of clays and organoclays in industrial applications it is of importance to consider the toxicity of these materials. Recently it was reported that the commercially available Montmorillonite clay, Cloisite® 30B, which is surface-modified by organic quaternary ammonium compounds, was genotoxic in vitro. In the present study the in-vivo genotoxic and inflammatory potential of Cloisite® 30B was investigated as a follow-up of the in-vitro studies. Wistar rats were exposed to Cloisite® 30B twice 24 h apart by oral gavage, at doses ranging from 250 to 1000 mg/kg body weight [indicate duration of treatment; Ed.]. There was no induction of DNA strand-breaks in colon, liver and kidney cells and there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine markers in blood-plasma samples. In order to verify the possible absorption of Cloisite® 30B from the gastrointestinal tract, inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed on samples of liver, kidney and faeces, with aluminium as a tracer element characteristic to clay. The results showed that aluminium could be detected in faeces, but not in the liver or kidneys. This indicated that there was no systemic exposure to clay particles from Cloisite® 30B. Detection and identification of free quaternary ammonium modifier in the highest dose of Cloisite® 30B was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). This analysis revealed a mixture of three quaternary ammonium analogues. The detected concentration of the organomodifier corresponded to an exposure of rats to about 5 mg quaternary ammonium analogues/kg body weight.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Volume770
Pages (from-to)66-71
ISSN1383-5718
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Comet assay
  • Inflammation
  • Absorption
  • Quaternary ammonium compound
  • Clay
  • Nanocomposite

Cite this

Sharma, Anoop Kumar ; Mortensen, Alicja ; Schmidt, Bjørn ; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz ; Hadrup, Niels ; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt ; Binderup, Mona-Lise. / In-vivo study of genotoxic and inflammatory effects of the organo-modified Montmorillonite Cloisite® 30B. In: Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 2014 ; Vol. 770. pp. 66-71.
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title = "In-vivo study of genotoxic and inflammatory effects of the organo-modified Montmorillonite Cloisite{\circledR} 30B",
abstract = "Because of the increasing use of clays and organoclays in industrial applications it is of importance to consider the toxicity of these materials. Recently it was reported that the commercially available Montmorillonite clay, Cloisite{\circledR} 30B, which is surface-modified by organic quaternary ammonium compounds, was genotoxic in vitro. In the present study the in-vivo genotoxic and inflammatory potential of Cloisite{\circledR} 30B was investigated as a follow-up of the in-vitro studies. Wistar rats were exposed to Cloisite{\circledR} 30B twice 24 h apart by oral gavage, at doses ranging from 250 to 1000 mg/kg body weight [indicate duration of treatment; Ed.]. There was no induction of DNA strand-breaks in colon, liver and kidney cells and there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine markers in blood-plasma samples. In order to verify the possible absorption of Cloisite{\circledR} 30B from the gastrointestinal tract, inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed on samples of liver, kidney and faeces, with aluminium as a tracer element characteristic to clay. The results showed that aluminium could be detected in faeces, but not in the liver or kidneys. This indicated that there was no systemic exposure to clay particles from Cloisite{\circledR} 30B. Detection and identification of free quaternary ammonium modifier in the highest dose of Cloisite{\circledR} 30B was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). This analysis revealed a mixture of three quaternary ammonium analogues. The detected concentration of the organomodifier corresponded to an exposure of rats to about 5 mg quaternary ammonium analogues/kg body weight.",
keywords = "Comet assay, Inflammation, Absorption, Quaternary ammonium compound, Clay, Nanocomposite",
author = "Sharma, {Anoop Kumar} and Alicja Mortensen and Bj{\o}rn Schmidt and Frandsen, {Henrik Lauritz} and Niels Hadrup and Larsen, {Erik Huusfeldt} and Mona-Lise Binderup",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.04.023",
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In-vivo study of genotoxic and inflammatory effects of the organo-modified Montmorillonite Cloisite® 30B. / Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Mortensen, Alicja; Schmidt, Bjørn; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Hadrup, Niels; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Binderup, Mona-Lise.

In: Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Vol. 770, 2014, p. 66-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - In-vivo study of genotoxic and inflammatory effects of the organo-modified Montmorillonite Cloisite® 30B

AU - Sharma, Anoop Kumar

AU - Mortensen, Alicja

AU - Schmidt, Bjørn

AU - Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

AU - Hadrup, Niels

AU - Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

AU - Binderup, Mona-Lise

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Because of the increasing use of clays and organoclays in industrial applications it is of importance to consider the toxicity of these materials. Recently it was reported that the commercially available Montmorillonite clay, Cloisite® 30B, which is surface-modified by organic quaternary ammonium compounds, was genotoxic in vitro. In the present study the in-vivo genotoxic and inflammatory potential of Cloisite® 30B was investigated as a follow-up of the in-vitro studies. Wistar rats were exposed to Cloisite® 30B twice 24 h apart by oral gavage, at doses ranging from 250 to 1000 mg/kg body weight [indicate duration of treatment; Ed.]. There was no induction of DNA strand-breaks in colon, liver and kidney cells and there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine markers in blood-plasma samples. In order to verify the possible absorption of Cloisite® 30B from the gastrointestinal tract, inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed on samples of liver, kidney and faeces, with aluminium as a tracer element characteristic to clay. The results showed that aluminium could be detected in faeces, but not in the liver or kidneys. This indicated that there was no systemic exposure to clay particles from Cloisite® 30B. Detection and identification of free quaternary ammonium modifier in the highest dose of Cloisite® 30B was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). This analysis revealed a mixture of three quaternary ammonium analogues. The detected concentration of the organomodifier corresponded to an exposure of rats to about 5 mg quaternary ammonium analogues/kg body weight.

AB - Because of the increasing use of clays and organoclays in industrial applications it is of importance to consider the toxicity of these materials. Recently it was reported that the commercially available Montmorillonite clay, Cloisite® 30B, which is surface-modified by organic quaternary ammonium compounds, was genotoxic in vitro. In the present study the in-vivo genotoxic and inflammatory potential of Cloisite® 30B was investigated as a follow-up of the in-vitro studies. Wistar rats were exposed to Cloisite® 30B twice 24 h apart by oral gavage, at doses ranging from 250 to 1000 mg/kg body weight [indicate duration of treatment; Ed.]. There was no induction of DNA strand-breaks in colon, liver and kidney cells and there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine markers in blood-plasma samples. In order to verify the possible absorption of Cloisite® 30B from the gastrointestinal tract, inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed on samples of liver, kidney and faeces, with aluminium as a tracer element characteristic to clay. The results showed that aluminium could be detected in faeces, but not in the liver or kidneys. This indicated that there was no systemic exposure to clay particles from Cloisite® 30B. Detection and identification of free quaternary ammonium modifier in the highest dose of Cloisite® 30B was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). This analysis revealed a mixture of three quaternary ammonium analogues. The detected concentration of the organomodifier corresponded to an exposure of rats to about 5 mg quaternary ammonium analogues/kg body weight.

KW - Comet assay

KW - Inflammation

KW - Absorption

KW - Quaternary ammonium compound

KW - Clay

KW - Nanocomposite

U2 - 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.04.023

DO - 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.04.023

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 25344166

VL - 770

SP - 66

EP - 71

JO - Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis

JF - Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis

SN - 1383-5718

ER -