In vitro and in vivo endocrine disrupting effects of the azole fungicides triticonazole and flusilazole

Monica Kam Draskau, Julie Boberg, Camilla Taxvig, Mikael Pedersen, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Sofie Christiansen, Terje Svingen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Azoles are effective antifungal agents used in both medicine and agriculture. They typically work by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes, primarily CYP51 of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, thus damaging the fungal cell membrane. However, apart from their desired antifungal properties, several azoles also exhibit endocrine disrupting properties in mammals, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have tested two currently used agricultural azole fungicides, triticonazole and flusilazole, for their in vitro anti-androgenic activity and potential effects on reproductive parameters. Both fungicides showed strong androgen receptor (AR) antagonism and disruption of steroid biosynthesis in vitro. Following gestational exposure to flusilazole (15 or 45 mg/kg bw/day) or triticonazole (150 or 450 mg/kg bw/day) in time-mated Sprague Dawley rats, triticonazole induced shorter male anogenital distance (AGD). Flusilazole exposure did not affect the AGD, but altered fetal male blood hormone profile, with increased androstenedione and decreased estrone levels. Flusilazole and triticonazole have dissimilar effects on reproductive parameters in vivo, but both show endocrine disrupting activities.
Original languageEnglish
Article number113309
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume255
Issue numberPart 2
Number of pages11
ISSN0269-7491
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Conazoles
  • Fungicides
  • Endocrine disruptors
  • Anogenital distance
  • Anti-androgen
  • Steroidogenesis

Cite this

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title = "In vitro and in vivo endocrine disrupting effects of the azole fungicides triticonazole and flusilazole",
abstract = "Azoles are effective antifungal agents used in both medicine and agriculture. They typically work by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes, primarily CYP51 of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, thus damaging the fungal cell membrane. However, apart from their desired antifungal properties, several azoles also exhibit endocrine disrupting properties in mammals, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have tested two currently used agricultural azole fungicides, triticonazole and flusilazole, for their in vitro anti-androgenic activity and potential effects on reproductive parameters. Both fungicides showed strong androgen receptor (AR) antagonism and disruption of steroid biosynthesis in vitro. Following gestational exposure to flusilazole (15 or 45 mg/kg bw/day) or triticonazole (150 or 450 mg/kg bw/day) in time-mated Sprague Dawley rats, triticonazole induced shorter male anogenital distance (AGD). Flusilazole exposure did not affect the AGD, but altered fetal male blood hormone profile, with increased androstenedione and decreased estrone levels. Flusilazole and triticonazole have dissimilar effects on reproductive parameters in vivo, but both show endocrine disrupting activities.",
keywords = "Conazoles, Fungicides, Endocrine disruptors, Anogenital distance, Anti-androgen, Steroidogenesis",
author = "Draskau, {Monica Kam} and Julie Boberg and Camilla Taxvig and Mikael Pedersen and Frandsen, {Henrik Lauritz} and Sofie Christiansen and Terje Svingen",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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In vitro and in vivo endocrine disrupting effects of the azole fungicides triticonazole and flusilazole. / Draskau, Monica Kam; Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Christiansen, Sofie; Svingen, Terje.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 255, No. Part 2, 113309, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - In vitro and in vivo endocrine disrupting effects of the azole fungicides triticonazole and flusilazole

AU - Draskau, Monica Kam

AU - Boberg, Julie

AU - Taxvig, Camilla

AU - Pedersen, Mikael

AU - Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

AU - Christiansen, Sofie

AU - Svingen, Terje

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

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AB - Azoles are effective antifungal agents used in both medicine and agriculture. They typically work by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes, primarily CYP51 of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, thus damaging the fungal cell membrane. However, apart from their desired antifungal properties, several azoles also exhibit endocrine disrupting properties in mammals, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have tested two currently used agricultural azole fungicides, triticonazole and flusilazole, for their in vitro anti-androgenic activity and potential effects on reproductive parameters. Both fungicides showed strong androgen receptor (AR) antagonism and disruption of steroid biosynthesis in vitro. Following gestational exposure to flusilazole (15 or 45 mg/kg bw/day) or triticonazole (150 or 450 mg/kg bw/day) in time-mated Sprague Dawley rats, triticonazole induced shorter male anogenital distance (AGD). Flusilazole exposure did not affect the AGD, but altered fetal male blood hormone profile, with increased androstenedione and decreased estrone levels. Flusilazole and triticonazole have dissimilar effects on reproductive parameters in vivo, but both show endocrine disrupting activities.

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