Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) makes it possible to obtain insight into the structure, composition and reactivity of photocatalysts, which are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research. Such insight can be used for further material optimization. Here, we combine conventional TEM analysis of photocatalysts with environmental TEM (ETEM) and photoactivation using light. Two novel types of TEM specimen holder that enable in situ illumination are developed to study light-induced phenomena in photoactive materials, systems and photocatalysts at the nanoscale under working conditions. The technological development of the holders is described and two representative photo-induced phenomena are studied: the photodegradation of Cu2O and the photodeposition of Pt onto a GaN:ZnO photocatalyst.