Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers high spatial and temporal resolution that provides unique information for understanding the function and properties of nanostructures on their characteristic length scales. Under controlled environmental conditions and with the ability to dynamically influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured materials and devices with the specimen being contacted by electrical, mechanical or other means, with emphasis on in situ electrical measurements performed in a gaseous or liquid environment. We will describe the challenges and prospects of electrical characterization of devices and processes induced by a voltage in gas and liquids. We will also provide a historical perspective of in situ TEM electrical measurements and applications using electrical contacts.
|Title of host publication||Controlled Atmosphere Transmission Electron Microscopy : Principles and Practice|
|Editors||Thomas Willum Hansen, Jakob Birkedal Wagner|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|