In-situ observation of nucleation, growth and interaction of deformation-induced α martensite in metastable Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al

Frank Niessen*, Azdiar A. Gazder, David R.G. Mitchell, Elena V. Pereloma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Microstructure evolution, dominated by the formation of deformation-induced α martensite during the 3-point bending of a metastable β Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al alloy containing 5% α, was observed in-situ using forward-scatter electron imaging and electron backscattering diffraction. α plates nucleated heterogeneously from {580}α habit planes at α-β interfaces and triggered the nucleation of additional α plates at the advancing interface during growth and upon impingement with high-angle boundaries. Further thickening of the impinged α plates led to a build-up of strain energy which induced 13031‾0α'' twinning within obstacle-forming α plates. Until now, this twinning system was observed in Nb and Ta alloyed Ti shape memory alloys only. This in-situ study is also the first to document the activation of 13031‾0α'' twinning by α impingement in a metastable β matrix. The first forming variants were {011}α compound twin-related variant pairs, each forming from up to two individual habit planes. These variant pairs were consistently predicted by determining the grain-average stress with finite element analysis and computing the available work from the transformation strain of the α variants. At higher indenter loads, grains that were unfavourably oriented to martensite formation accommodated the local stress by forming aggregates of different α variants, obeying either {111}α type I or 211α'' type II twin relationships. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed α substructures comprising columnar domains oriented perpendicular to the habit plane along with the absence of lattice invariant deformation. The growth of α plates involved ledge formation at α-β interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Article number140237
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD)
  • Martensite
  • Titanium alloys
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
  • Twinning


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