In Situ Investigation of the Evolution of Lattice Strain and Stresses in Austenite and Martensite During Quenching and Tempering of Steel

M. Villa*, F. Niessen, M. A. J. Somers

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were measured in situ in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface during an austenitization, quenching, and tempering cycle. In a second experiment, the sin2ψ method was applied in situ during the austenite-to-martensite transformation to distinguish between macro- and phase-specific micro-stresses and to follow the evolution of these stresses during transformation. Martensite formation evokes compressive stress in austenite that is balanced by tensile stress in martensite. Tempering to 748 K (475 °C) leads to partial relaxation of these stresses. Additionally, data reveal that (elastic) lattice strain in austenite is not hydrostatic but hkl dependent, which is ascribed to plastic deformation of this phase during martensite formation and is considered responsible for anomalous behavior of the 200γ reflection.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Volume49
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)28–40
ISSN1073-5623
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Martensite
  • Synchrotron X -ray diffraction (XRD)
  • Residual stresses
  • Tempering
  • Steel

Cite this

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title = "In Situ Investigation of the Evolution of Lattice Strain and Stresses in Austenite and Martensite During Quenching and Tempering of Steel",
abstract = "Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were measured in situ in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface during an austenitization, quenching, and tempering cycle. In a second experiment, the sin2ψ method was applied in situ during the austenite-to-martensite transformation to distinguish between macro- and phase-specific micro-stresses and to follow the evolution of these stresses during transformation. Martensite formation evokes compressive stress in austenite that is balanced by tensile stress in martensite. Tempering to 748 K (475 °C) leads to partial relaxation of these stresses. Additionally, data reveal that (elastic) lattice strain in austenite is not hydrostatic but hkl dependent, which is ascribed to plastic deformation of this phase during martensite formation and is considered responsible for anomalous behavior of the 200γ reflection.",
keywords = "Martensite, Synchrotron X -ray diffraction (XRD), Residual stresses, Tempering, Steel",
author = "M. Villa and F. Niessen and Somers, {M. A. J.}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1007/s11661-017-4387-0",
language = "English",
volume = "49",
pages = "28–40",
journal = "Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science",
issn = "1073-5623",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - In Situ Investigation of the Evolution of Lattice Strain and Stresses in Austenite and Martensite During Quenching and Tempering of Steel

AU - Villa, M.

AU - Niessen, F.

AU - Somers, M. A. J.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were measured in situ in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface during an austenitization, quenching, and tempering cycle. In a second experiment, the sin2ψ method was applied in situ during the austenite-to-martensite transformation to distinguish between macro- and phase-specific micro-stresses and to follow the evolution of these stresses during transformation. Martensite formation evokes compressive stress in austenite that is balanced by tensile stress in martensite. Tempering to 748 K (475 °C) leads to partial relaxation of these stresses. Additionally, data reveal that (elastic) lattice strain in austenite is not hydrostatic but hkl dependent, which is ascribed to plastic deformation of this phase during martensite formation and is considered responsible for anomalous behavior of the 200γ reflection.

AB - Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were measured in situ in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface during an austenitization, quenching, and tempering cycle. In a second experiment, the sin2ψ method was applied in situ during the austenite-to-martensite transformation to distinguish between macro- and phase-specific micro-stresses and to follow the evolution of these stresses during transformation. Martensite formation evokes compressive stress in austenite that is balanced by tensile stress in martensite. Tempering to 748 K (475 °C) leads to partial relaxation of these stresses. Additionally, data reveal that (elastic) lattice strain in austenite is not hydrostatic but hkl dependent, which is ascribed to plastic deformation of this phase during martensite formation and is considered responsible for anomalous behavior of the 200γ reflection.

KW - Martensite

KW - Synchrotron X -ray diffraction (XRD)

KW - Residual stresses

KW - Tempering

KW - Steel

U2 - 10.1007/s11661-017-4387-0

DO - 10.1007/s11661-017-4387-0

M3 - Journal article

VL - 49

SP - 28

EP - 40

JO - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

JF - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

SN - 1073-5623

IS - 1

ER -