In-Situ Gas Transmission Electron Microscopy

Ke Fang, Wentao Yuan, Jakob B. Wagner, Ze Zhang, Yong Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


One of the most nonnegligible characters of a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is that the interior chamber which contains an electron source, (almost all) lens, apertures, and other functional accessories should maintain a high vacuum or even ultrahigh vacuum during observation. The requirement is determined by the fundamental designed principles, including keeping the high vacuum around the electron source to maintain the capability, and obviating the collisions between the electrons and atmospheric molecules to guarantee the coherence of electron wave. However, the realistic conditions for material operation are usually under gas environments, which contradict the high vacuum environment. Therefore, to compromise the conflict between the TEM apparatus itself and the requirements derived from a large amount of real applications, environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) emerged. The word “environmental” in the phrase emphasizes various gaseous surroundings, including different gases and adjustable pressure. The key to solving the problem mainly lies in confining a certain volume of gas only around the specimen to build a gas environment, while maintaining the other chambers under a high vacuum. There are two approaches to achieving the goal nowadays, and both of them are developed well and have unique advantages, which facilitate their broad applications in gas-involved fields, such as catalysis and nanocrystal growth. This chapter will introduce the developing history of gas TEM, and explain two main approaches, then present a summary of applications based on the ETEM and its attachments, and finally the foreseeable prospect and developing tendency.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIn-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy
Publication date2023
ISBN (Print)978-981-19-6844-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-19-6845-7
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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