In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

Azeem Zulfiqar, François Patou, Andrea Pfreundt, Charalampos Papakonstantinopoulos, Winnie Edith Svendsen, Maria Dimaki

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    Abstract

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalSensing and Bio-Sensing Research
    Volume13
    Pages (from-to)88-95
    ISSN2214-1804
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

    Cite this

    @article{45fe8b8f078d425d80a04396f9a166c5,
    title = "In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors",
    abstract = "Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions.",
    author = "Azeem Zulfiqar and Fran{\cc}ois Patou and Andrea Pfreundt and Charalampos Papakonstantinopoulos and Svendsen, {Winnie Edith} and Maria Dimaki",
    note = "This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).",
    year = "2017",
    doi = "10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.09.001",
    language = "English",
    volume = "13",
    pages = "88--95",
    journal = "Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research",
    issn = "2214-1804",
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    In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors. / Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea; Papakonstantinopoulos, Charalampos; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria.

    In: Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research, Vol. 13, 2017, p. 88-95.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

    AU - Zulfiqar, Azeem

    AU - Patou, François

    AU - Pfreundt, Andrea

    AU - Papakonstantinopoulos, Charalampos

    AU - Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    AU - Dimaki, Maria

    N1 - This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

    PY - 2017

    Y1 - 2017

    N2 - Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions.

    AB - Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.09.001

    DO - 10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.09.001

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 13

    SP - 88

    EP - 95

    JO - Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research

    JF - Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research

    SN - 2214-1804

    ER -