PBDTTTz-4 is employed in the ambient manufacturing of fully Roll-to-Roll organic solar cell modules.
Modules are manufactured using a novel silver nanowire electrode or a previously reported carbon
electrode. The average PCE of carbon modules (3.07%) and AgNW modules (1.46%) shows that
PBDTTTz-4 is a good candidate for upscaling. Stability measurements following the ISOS standards
are used to compare the lifetime of the different modules. In all tests but one, the carbon modules are less
stable. The higher stability of AgNW is attributed to the removal of the PEDOT:PSS in the front
electrode. Finally during indoor light tests, a new degradation phenomenon is observed where bubbles
are formed inside the modules contrary to previous reports of bubble formation by thermal expansion of
trapped gas inside the barrier.
This work has been supported by the Eurotech Universities Alliance project “Interface science for photovoltaics (ISPV)”