Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures

P. Balling*, J. Christiansen, R. E. Christiansen, E. Eriksen, H. Lakhotiya, M. Mirsafaei, S. H. Møller, A. Nazir, J. Vester-Petersen, B.R. Jeppesen, P. B. Jensen, J. L. Hansen, S. K. Ram, O. Sigmund, M. Madsen, S. P. Madsen, B. Julsgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Spectral conversion of the sunlight has been proposed as a method for enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaicvdevices, which are limited in current production by the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the wavelength range for efficient carrier generation. For example, the photo current can be increased by conversion of two low-energy photons (below the band gap of the absorber) to one higher-energy photon (i.e. upconversion). In this paper, we will review our ongoing activities aimed at enhancing such spectral-conversion processes by employing appropriately designed plasmonic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles serve as light-concentrating elements in order to enhance the non-linear upconversion process. From the theoretical side, we approach the optimization of nanoparticles by finite-element modelling of the plasmonic near fields in combination with topological optimization of the particle geometries. Experimentally, the nanostructures are formed by electronbeam lithography on thin films of Er3+-containing transparent materials, foremost TiO2 made by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, and layers of chemically synthesized NaYF4 nanoparticles. The properties of theupconverter are measured using a variety of optical methods, including time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy on erbium transitions and spectrally resolved upconversion-yield measurements at ∼1500-nm-light excitation.The calculated near-field enhancements are validated using a technique of near-field-enhanced ablation by tunable, ultrashort laser pulses.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOptical Materials
Volume83
Pages (from-to)279-289
ISSN0925-3467
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Upconversion
  • Photovoltaics
  • Plasmonic enhancement

Cite this

Balling, P. ; Christiansen, J. ; Christiansen, R. E. ; Eriksen, E. ; Lakhotiya, H. ; Mirsafaei, M. ; Møller, S. H. ; Nazir, A. ; Vester-Petersen, J. ; Jeppesen, B.R. ; Jensen, P. B. ; Hansen, J. L. ; Ram, S. K. ; Sigmund, O. ; Madsen, M. ; Madsen, S. P. ; Julsgaard, B. / Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures. In: Optical Materials. 2018 ; Vol. 83. pp. 279-289.
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title = "Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures",
abstract = "Spectral conversion of the sunlight has been proposed as a method for enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaicvdevices, which are limited in current production by the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the wavelength range for efficient carrier generation. For example, the photo current can be increased by conversion of two low-energy photons (below the band gap of the absorber) to one higher-energy photon (i.e. upconversion). In this paper, we will review our ongoing activities aimed at enhancing such spectral-conversion processes by employing appropriately designed plasmonic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles serve as light-concentrating elements in order to enhance the non-linear upconversion process. From the theoretical side, we approach the optimization of nanoparticles by finite-element modelling of the plasmonic near fields in combination with topological optimization of the particle geometries. Experimentally, the nanostructures are formed by electronbeam lithography on thin films of Er3+-containing transparent materials, foremost TiO2 made by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, and layers of chemically synthesized NaYF4 nanoparticles. The properties of theupconverter are measured using a variety of optical methods, including time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy on erbium transitions and spectrally resolved upconversion-yield measurements at ∼1500-nm-light excitation.The calculated near-field enhancements are validated using a technique of near-field-enhanced ablation by tunable, ultrashort laser pulses.",
keywords = "Upconversion, Photovoltaics, Plasmonic enhancement",
author = "P. Balling and J. Christiansen and Christiansen, {R. E.} and E. Eriksen and H. Lakhotiya and M. Mirsafaei and M{\o}ller, {S. H.} and A. Nazir and J. Vester-Petersen and B.R. Jeppesen and Jensen, {P. B.} and Hansen, {J. L.} and Ram, {S. K.} and O. Sigmund and M. Madsen and Madsen, {S. P.} and B. Julsgaard",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/j.optmat.2018.06.038",
language = "English",
volume = "83",
pages = "279--289",
journal = "Optical Materials",
issn = "0925-3467",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Balling, P, Christiansen, J, Christiansen, RE, Eriksen, E, Lakhotiya, H, Mirsafaei, M, Møller, SH, Nazir, A, Vester-Petersen, J, Jeppesen, BR, Jensen, PB, Hansen, JL, Ram, SK, Sigmund, O, Madsen, M, Madsen, SP & Julsgaard, B 2018, 'Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures', Optical Materials, vol. 83, pp. 279-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.06.038

Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures. / Balling, P.; Christiansen, J.; Christiansen, R. E. ; Eriksen, E.; Lakhotiya, H.; Mirsafaei, M.; Møller, S. H.; Nazir, A.; Vester-Petersen, J.; Jeppesen, B.R.; Jensen, P. B.; Hansen, J. L.; Ram, S. K.; Sigmund, O.; Madsen, M.; Madsen, S. P.; Julsgaard, B.

In: Optical Materials, Vol. 83, 2018, p. 279-289.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures

AU - Balling, P.

AU - Christiansen, J.

AU - Christiansen, R. E.

AU - Eriksen, E.

AU - Lakhotiya, H.

AU - Mirsafaei, M.

AU - Møller, S. H.

AU - Nazir, A.

AU - Vester-Petersen, J.

AU - Jeppesen, B.R.

AU - Jensen, P. B.

AU - Hansen, J. L.

AU - Ram, S. K.

AU - Sigmund, O.

AU - Madsen, M.

AU - Madsen, S. P.

AU - Julsgaard, B.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Spectral conversion of the sunlight has been proposed as a method for enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaicvdevices, which are limited in current production by the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the wavelength range for efficient carrier generation. For example, the photo current can be increased by conversion of two low-energy photons (below the band gap of the absorber) to one higher-energy photon (i.e. upconversion). In this paper, we will review our ongoing activities aimed at enhancing such spectral-conversion processes by employing appropriately designed plasmonic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles serve as light-concentrating elements in order to enhance the non-linear upconversion process. From the theoretical side, we approach the optimization of nanoparticles by finite-element modelling of the plasmonic near fields in combination with topological optimization of the particle geometries. Experimentally, the nanostructures are formed by electronbeam lithography on thin films of Er3+-containing transparent materials, foremost TiO2 made by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, and layers of chemically synthesized NaYF4 nanoparticles. The properties of theupconverter are measured using a variety of optical methods, including time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy on erbium transitions and spectrally resolved upconversion-yield measurements at ∼1500-nm-light excitation.The calculated near-field enhancements are validated using a technique of near-field-enhanced ablation by tunable, ultrashort laser pulses.

AB - Spectral conversion of the sunlight has been proposed as a method for enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaicvdevices, which are limited in current production by the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the wavelength range for efficient carrier generation. For example, the photo current can be increased by conversion of two low-energy photons (below the band gap of the absorber) to one higher-energy photon (i.e. upconversion). In this paper, we will review our ongoing activities aimed at enhancing such spectral-conversion processes by employing appropriately designed plasmonic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles serve as light-concentrating elements in order to enhance the non-linear upconversion process. From the theoretical side, we approach the optimization of nanoparticles by finite-element modelling of the plasmonic near fields in combination with topological optimization of the particle geometries. Experimentally, the nanostructures are formed by electronbeam lithography on thin films of Er3+-containing transparent materials, foremost TiO2 made by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, and layers of chemically synthesized NaYF4 nanoparticles. The properties of theupconverter are measured using a variety of optical methods, including time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy on erbium transitions and spectrally resolved upconversion-yield measurements at ∼1500-nm-light excitation.The calculated near-field enhancements are validated using a technique of near-field-enhanced ablation by tunable, ultrashort laser pulses.

KW - Upconversion

KW - Photovoltaics

KW - Plasmonic enhancement

U2 - 10.1016/j.optmat.2018.06.038

DO - 10.1016/j.optmat.2018.06.038

M3 - Journal article

VL - 83

SP - 279

EP - 289

JO - Optical Materials

JF - Optical Materials

SN - 0925-3467

ER -