Improving 3D spatial queries search: newfangled technique of space filling curves in 3D city modeling

U. Uznir, François Anton, A. Suhaibah, A. A. Rahman, Darka Mioc

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (space-filling curve) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert’s curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its clustering in 2D.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationISPRS 8th 3DGeoInfo Conference & WG II/2 Workshop
    Number of pages9
    Place of PublicationIstanbul, Turkey
    Publication date2013
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    Event8th 3D GeoInfo Conference  - Yildiz Technical University , Istanbul, Turkey
    Duration: 27 Nov 201329 Nov 2013
    Conference number: 8


    Conference8th 3D GeoInfo Conference 
    LocationYildiz Technical University
    OtherIncluding ISPRS WG II/2 Workshop 2013
    Internet address


    • 3D spatial data management
    • 3D space filing curves
    • 3D city modeling
    • 3D adjacency
    • 3D indexing


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    • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

      Francesc/François Antón Castro (Visiting researcher)

      30 May 201329 Aug 2013

      Activity: Visiting an external institutionVisiting another research institution

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