Importance of Mullins effect in commercial silicone elastomer formulations for soft robotics

Sara Krpovic, Kim Dam‐Johansen, Anne Ladegaard Skov*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Silicone elastomers are used in a wide range of applications, including artificial muscles, biomedical devices, and soft robotics, for which chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability are important requirements that these elastomers must fulfill. However, to ensure that silicone elastomers' properties and performance remain constant under long‐term deployment, it is necessary to examine and account for the Mullins effect, which has the potential to significantly alter certain elastomer properties of interest. In this article, the mechanical properties of soft and hard commercial silicone elastomers and two blends of commercial silicone elastomers are investigated—specifically their softening behavior due to the Mullins effect. Ultimate stresses, ultimate strains, and Young's moduli are obtained from uniaxial tensile tests. Results show that the point of softening greatly depends on both the elastomer type and its strain history. Furthermore, a significant permanent set is observed in the softest commercial formulations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number50380
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Mechanical properties
  • Structure–property relationships
  • Thermogravimetric analysis
  • Viscosity and viscoelasticity

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