Importance of microbial colonization of the gut in early life to the development of immunity

Denise Kelly, Timothy King, Rustam Aminov

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex microbiota consisting of between 500 and 1000 distinct microbial species. Comparative studies based on the germ-free gut have provided clear evidence that the gut microbiota is instrumental in promoting the development of both the gut and systemic immune systems. Early microbial exposure of the gut is thought to dramatically reduce the incidence of inflammatory, autoimmune and atopic diseases further fuelling the scientific viewpoint, that microbial colonization plays an important role in regulating and fine-tuning the immune system throughout life. Recent molecular diversity studies have provided additional evidence that the human gut microbiota is compositionally altered in individuals suffering from inflammatory bowel disorders, suggesting that specific bacterial species are important to maintaining immunological balance and health. New and exciting insights into how gut bacteria modulate the mammalian immune system are emerging. However, much remains to be elucidated about how commensal bacteria influence the function of cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in health and disease. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMutation research
Volume622
Issue number1-2
Pages (from-to)58-69
Number of pages12
ISSN0027-5107
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • GASTROINTESTINAL system
  • Microbiology
  • Bacteria
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Intestines
  • immunoglobulin A
  • probiotic agent
  • adaptive immunity
  • allergy
  • article
  • atopy
  • autoimmune disease
  • bacterial colonization
  • breast milk
  • genomics
  • human
  • immune system
  • immunological tolerance
  • inflammation
  • inflammatory disease
  • innate immunity
  • intestine flora
  • intestine mucosa
  • mammal
  • nonhuman
  • nutrigenomics
  • priority journal
  • T lymphocyte
  • Bacteria (microorganisms)
  • Mammalia
  • Inflammation
  • Microbiota
  • Mucosal immune system
  • Probiotics
  • Tolerance
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • GENETICS
  • TOXICOLOGY
  • 16S RIBOSOMAL-RNA
  • INFLAMMATORY-BOWEL-DISEASE
  • IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION
  • FOLLICLE-ASSOCIATED EPITHELIUM
  • TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS
  • REGULATORY T-CELLS
  • DENDRITIC CELLS
  • INNATE IMMUNITY
  • BACTEROIDES-THETAIOTAOMICRON
  • INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA
  • microbiota
  • mucosal immune system
  • probiotics
  • tolerance
  • microbial colonization
  • inflammatory bowel disorder digestive system disease
  • Primates Mammalia Vertebrata Chordata Animalia (Animals, Chordates, Humans, Mammals, Primates, Vertebrates) - Hominidae [86215] human common
  • 14004, Digestive system - Physiology and biochemistry
  • 14006, Digestive system - Pathology
  • 29500, Microorganisms - General
  • 34502, Immunology - General and methods
  • 34508, Immunology - Immunopathology, tissue immunology
  • Human Medicine, Medical Sciences
  • gastrointestinal tract digestive system
  • gut digestive system
  • immune system immune system
  • Clinical Immunology
  • Gastroenterology

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