Implications of Byproduct Chemistry in Nanoparticle Synthesis

Frederick N. Stappen, Kasper Enemark-Rasmussen, Glen P. Junor, Mads Hartvig Clausen, Jingdong Zhang, Christian Engelbrekt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Byproducts in metalnanoparticle synthesis can interfere with nanomaterial formation and self-assembly, as well as the perceived nanomaterial properties. Such syntheses go through a complicated series of intermediates, making it difficult to predict byproduct chemistry and challenging to determine experimentally. By a combined experimental and theoretical approach, the formation of organic byproducts is mapped out for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Good’s buffer 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid. Comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance studies supported by mass spectrometry, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and density functional theory reveal a number of previously unidentified byproducts formed by oxidation, C–N bond cleavage,and C–C bond formation. A reaction mechanism involving up to four consecutive oxidations is proposed. Oligomeric products with electronic transitions in the visible range are suggested. This approach can be extended broadly and lead to a more informed synthesis designand material characterization.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number41
Pages (from-to)25402-25411
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2019


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