Imperative versus Declarative Process Modeling Languages: An Empirical Investigation

Paul Pichler, Barbara Weber, Stefan Zugal, Jakob Pinggera, Jan Mendling, Hajo A. R. Reijers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


Streams of research are emerging that emphasize the advantages of using declarative process modeling languages over more traditional, imperative approaches. In particular, the declarative modeling approach is known for its ability to cope with the limited flexibility of the imperative approach. However, there is still not much empirical insight into the actual strengths and the applicability of each modeling paradigm. In this paper, we investigate in an experimental setting if either the imperative or the declarative process modeling approach is superior with respect to process model understanding. Even when task types are considered that should better match one or the other, our study finds that imperative process modeling languages appear to be connected with better understanding.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLecture Notes in Business Information Processing
Number of pages12
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date2012
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventBPM 2011 International Workshops - Clermont-Ferrand, France
Duration: 29 Aug 201129 Aug 2011


WorkshopBPM 2011 International Workshops
SeriesLecture Notes in Business Information Processing


  • Cognitive Dimensions Framework
  • Empirical Research
  • Imperative and Declarative Business Process Models

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