Impedance-based monitoring for tissue engineering applications

Chiara Canali, Arto Heiskanen, Ø.G. Martinsen, Soumyaranjan Mohanty, Martin Dufva, Anders Wolff, Jenny Emnéus

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


    Impedance is a promising technique for sensing the overall process of tissue engineering. Different electrode configurations can be used to characterize the scaffold that supports cell organization in terms of hydrogel polymerization and degree of porosity, monitoring cell loading, cell proliferation as well as the spatial distribution of cell aggregates in 3D. We have previously shown that impedance measurements allow accurate determination of conductivity in physiological solutions independent of validation and analysis of a specific equivalent circuit. Similarly to a physiological solution, cell culture medium conductivity, and hence the measured impedance, can respond to proliferating or dying cells populating the scaffold. Impedance may therefore be a key parameter for monitoring the biochemical dynamics that modulate 3D mammalian cell cultures over time. Furthermore, the conductivity of the medium filling the pores of the scaffold can serve as the basis for porosity determination using Archie’s law. Different networks of structured or random channels and degree of porosity can be detected. In addition, by combining a number of two-, three- and four-terminal (2T, 3T, 4T) configurations, it is possible to obtain complementary information on spatial distribution of cells in a 3D scaffold. 2T- and 3T configurations also reflect the impedance at the interface between an electrode and cell-loaded scaffold (polarization impedance, Zp), which may convey a further degree of information about the biochemical phenomena taking place in that sub-volume.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationII Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance
    Publication date2015
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    Event2nd Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance - Montevideo, Uruguay
    Duration: 30 Sept 20152 Oct 2015
    Conference number: 2


    Conference2nd Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance
    SeriesInternational Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering Proceedings


    • Impedence
    • Electrode configurations
    • Scaffold porosity
    • Cell aggregate distribution in 3D cultures
    • Tissue engineering


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