Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Aslak Harbo Poulsen*, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N. Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jorgen Brandt, Mette Sorensen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background:

Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances.

Objectives:

Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants.

Methods:

For all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20-WT20-WT heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of 20-to 40-WT20-to 40-WTheights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates.

Results:

Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of ≥42 dB≥42 dB was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of <24 dB<24 dB). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons ≥65y≥65y of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group (≥42 dB≥42 dB) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons ≥65y≥65y of age exposed to ≥15 dB≥15 dB were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants.

Conclusions:

We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number037005
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume127
Issue number3
Number of pages9
ISSN0091-6765
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

Poulsen, Aslak Harbo ; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole ; Peña, Alfredo ; Hahmann, Andrea N. ; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup ; Ketzel, Matthias ; Brandt, Jorgen ; Sorensen, Mette. / Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study: A Nationwide Cohort Study. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2019 ; Vol. 127, No. 3.
@article{1030ecc303724213bfac265b82933f3d,
title = "Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study: A Nationwide Cohort Study",
abstract = "Background:Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances.Objectives:Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants.Methods:For all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20-WT20-WT heights and for 25{\%} of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of 20-to 40-WT20-to 40-WTheights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates.Results:Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of ≥42 dB≥42 dB was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95{\%} confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95{\%} CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of <24 dB<24 dB). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons ≥65y≥65y of age, with HRs (95{\%} CIs) for the highest exposure group (≥42 dB≥42 dB) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95{\%} CIs) among persons ≥65y≥65y of age exposed to ≥15 dB≥15 dB were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants.Conclusions:We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health.",
author = "Poulsen, {Aslak Harbo} and Ole Raaschou-Nielsen and Alfredo Pe{\~n}a and Hahmann, {Andrea N.} and Nordsborg, {Rikke Baastrup} and Matthias Ketzel and Jorgen Brandt and Mette Sorensen",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1289/EHP3909",
language = "English",
volume = "127",
journal = "Environmental Health Perspectives",
issn = "0091-6765",
publisher = "National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences",
number = "3",

}

Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study: A Nationwide Cohort Study. / Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Peña, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jorgen; Sorensen, Mette.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 127, No. 3, 037005, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise on Redemption of Sleep Medication and Antidepressants: A Nationwide Cohort Study: A Nationwide Cohort Study

AU - Poulsen, Aslak Harbo

AU - Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

AU - Peña, Alfredo

AU - Hahmann, Andrea N.

AU - Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup

AU - Ketzel, Matthias

AU - Brandt, Jorgen

AU - Sorensen, Mette

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Background:Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances.Objectives:Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants.Methods:For all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20-WT20-WT heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of 20-to 40-WT20-to 40-WTheights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates.Results:Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of ≥42 dB≥42 dB was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of <24 dB<24 dB). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons ≥65y≥65y of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group (≥42 dB≥42 dB) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons ≥65y≥65y of age exposed to ≥15 dB≥15 dB were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants.Conclusions:We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health.

AB - Background:Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances.Objectives:Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants.Methods:For all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20-WT20-WT heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of 20-to 40-WT20-to 40-WTheights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates.Results:Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of ≥42 dB≥42 dB was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of <24 dB<24 dB). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons ≥65y≥65y of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group (≥42 dB≥42 dB) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons ≥65y≥65y of age exposed to ≥15 dB≥15 dB were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants.Conclusions:We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health.

U2 - 10.1289/EHP3909

DO - 10.1289/EHP3909

M3 - Journal article

VL - 127

JO - Environmental Health Perspectives

JF - Environmental Health Perspectives

SN - 0091-6765

IS - 3

M1 - 037005

ER -