Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives

Xiaodong Wang, Olle Hagman, Bror Sundqvist, Sigurdur Ormarsson, Hui Wan, Peter Niemz

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


As wood construction increasingly uses engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives used. Bondline strength is a crucial issue for engineered wood applications, especially in cold climates. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) joints (150 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) were bonded with seven commercially available adhesives: polyurethane (PUR), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), emulsion-polymer-isocyanate (EPI), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), melamine-urea-formaldehyde1 (MUF1), and melamine-urea-formaldehyde2 (MUF2). Each adhesive was tested at six temperatures: 20, −20, −30, −40, −50 and −60 °C. Generally, within the temperature test range, temperature changes significantly affected the shear strength of solid wood and wood joints. As the temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR adhesive in most cases resulted in the strongest shear strength and MUF adhesive resulted in the weakest. MF and PRF adhesives responded to temperature changes in a similar manner to that of the PUR adhesive. The shear strengths of wood joints with PVAc and EPI adhesives were more sensitive to temperature change. At low temperatures, the variability of shear strengths increased with all adhesives. Percent wood failures of joints bonded with different adhesives in most cases were not sensitive to temperature changes.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Wood and Wood Industries (Print)
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)225-233
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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