Erythromycin fermentation residue (EFR) is the precipitation of fermentative biowaste used for extracting erythromycin (ERY) and may be disposed via land application after heat-activated persulfate (PS) oxidation treatment. However, the effects of the treated EFR as a soil amendment on soil chemical properties and the potential resistance risks caused by introduced ERY remain unclear. Here, a laboratory soil incubation experiment was performed to investigate the soil pH, salinity, introduced antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), as well as bacterial community structure in the treated EFR-amended soil. The results indicated that pH in treated EFR-amended soil decreased firstly and then increased. The salinity of soil increased but soil was still non-saline soil. In addition, the introduced ERY in the treated EFR-amended soil decreased with the half-life of 12.3 d. Moreover, the relative abundances of ERY resistance genes and MGEs in the treated EFR-amended soil were much lower than those in the control at the end of incubation. Bacterial community structure in the treated EFR-amended soil converged to similar structure in control soil after 49 d incubation. Our results showed that heat-activated PS oxidation treatment of EFR prior to application to soil might be in favor of limiting the spread of ERY resistance genes and MGEs.
- Antibiotic resistance genes
- Erythromycin fermentation residue
- Persulfate oxidation treatment
- Soil amendment