In situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of the synthesis of graphene oxide and formation of reduced graphene oxide

Mie Møller Storm, Rune E. Johnsen, Poul Norby

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Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are important materials in a wide range of fields. The modified Hummers methods, for synthesizing GO, and subsequent thermal reduction to rGO, are often employed for production of rGO. However, the mechanism behinds these syntheses methods are still unclear. We present an in situ X-ray diffraction study of the synthesis of GO and thermal reduction of GO. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Hummers method includes an intercalation state and finally formation of additional crystalline material. The formation of GO is observed during both the intercalation and the crystallization stage. During thermal reduction of GO three stages were observed: GO, a disordered stage, and the rGO stage. The appearance of these stages depends on the heating ramp. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insight into the chemical and physical processes during the syntheses.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume240
Pages (from-to)49-54
Number of pages6
ISSN0022-4596
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Hummers method
  • Thermal reduction
  • Graphene oxide
  • Reduced graphene oxide
  • X-ray diffraction
  • In situ

Cite this

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title = "In situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of the synthesis of graphene oxide and formation of reduced graphene oxide",
abstract = "Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are important materials in a wide range of fields. The modified Hummers methods, for synthesizing GO, and subsequent thermal reduction to rGO, are often employed for production of rGO. However, the mechanism behinds these syntheses methods are still unclear. We present an in situ X-ray diffraction study of the synthesis of GO and thermal reduction of GO. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Hummers method includes an intercalation state and finally formation of additional crystalline material. The formation of GO is observed during both the intercalation and the crystallization stage. During thermal reduction of GO three stages were observed: GO, a disordered stage, and the rGO stage. The appearance of these stages depends on the heating ramp. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insight into the chemical and physical processes during the syntheses.",
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author = "Storm, {Mie M{\o}ller} and Johnsen, {Rune E.} and Poul Norby",
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journal = "Journal of Solid State Chemistry",
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In situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of the synthesis of graphene oxide and formation of reduced graphene oxide. / Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Norby, Poul.

In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 240, 2016, p. 49-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - In situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of the synthesis of graphene oxide and formation of reduced graphene oxide

AU - Storm, Mie Møller

AU - Johnsen, Rune E.

AU - Norby, Poul

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are important materials in a wide range of fields. The modified Hummers methods, for synthesizing GO, and subsequent thermal reduction to rGO, are often employed for production of rGO. However, the mechanism behinds these syntheses methods are still unclear. We present an in situ X-ray diffraction study of the synthesis of GO and thermal reduction of GO. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Hummers method includes an intercalation state and finally formation of additional crystalline material. The formation of GO is observed during both the intercalation and the crystallization stage. During thermal reduction of GO three stages were observed: GO, a disordered stage, and the rGO stage. The appearance of these stages depends on the heating ramp. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insight into the chemical and physical processes during the syntheses.

AB - Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are important materials in a wide range of fields. The modified Hummers methods, for synthesizing GO, and subsequent thermal reduction to rGO, are often employed for production of rGO. However, the mechanism behinds these syntheses methods are still unclear. We present an in situ X-ray diffraction study of the synthesis of GO and thermal reduction of GO. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Hummers method includes an intercalation state and finally formation of additional crystalline material. The formation of GO is observed during both the intercalation and the crystallization stage. During thermal reduction of GO three stages were observed: GO, a disordered stage, and the rGO stage. The appearance of these stages depends on the heating ramp. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insight into the chemical and physical processes during the syntheses.

KW - Hummers method

KW - Thermal reduction

KW - Graphene oxide

KW - Reduced graphene oxide

KW - X-ray diffraction

KW - In situ

U2 - 10.1016/j.jssc.2016.05.019

DO - 10.1016/j.jssc.2016.05.019

M3 - Journal article

VL - 240

SP - 49

EP - 54

JO - Journal of Solid State Chemistry

JF - Journal of Solid State Chemistry

SN - 0022-4596

ER -