Transplantation of germ-free (GF) mice with microbiota from mice or humans stimulates the intestinal immune system in disparate ways. We transplanted a human microbiota into GF C57BL/6 mice and a murine C57BL/6 microbiota into GF C57BL/6 mice and Swiss-Webster (SW) mice. Mice were bred to produce an offspring generation. 56% of the Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) present in the human donor microbiota established in the recipient mice, whereas 81% of the C57BL/6 OTUs established in the recipient C57BL/6 and SW mice. Anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium from humans were not transferred to mice. Expression of immune-related intestinal genes was lower in human microbiota-mice and not different between parent and offspring generation. Expression of intestinal barrier-related genes was slightly higher in human microbiota-mice. Cytokines and chemokines measured in plasma were differentially present in human and mouse microbiota-mice. Minor differences in microbiota and gene expression were found between transplanted mice of different genetics. It is concluded that important immune-regulating bacteria are lost when transplanting microbiota from humans to C57BL/6 mice, and that the established human microbiota is a weak stimulator of the murine immune system. The results are important for study design considerations in microbiota transplantation studies involving immunological parameters.