Hox transcription factors and their elusive mammalian gene targets

Terje Svingen, K. F. Tonissen

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The Hox family of homeodomain transcription factors regulate numerous pathways during developmental and normal cellular processes. All Hox proteins recognise similar sequences in vitro yet display functional diversity in an in vivo environment. This review focuses on the transcriptional and functional specificity elicited by Hox proteins, giving an overview of homeodomain-DNA interactions and the gain of binding specificity through cooperative binding with cofactors. Furthermore, currently identified mammalian Hox target genes are presented, of which the most striking feature is that very few direct Hox targets have been identified. The direct targets participate in an array of cellular functions including organogenesis and cellular differentiation, cell adhesion and migration and cell cycle and apoptotic pathways. A further assessment of identified mammalian promoter targets and the contribution of bases outside the canonical recognition motif is given, highlighting roles they may play in either trans-activation or repression by Hox proteins.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHeredity
Volume97
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)88-96
Number of pages9
ISSN0018-067X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ECOLOGY
  • EVOLUTIONARY
  • GENETICS
  • FACTOR-BINDING PROTEIN-1
  • HOMEODOMAIN-DNA COMPLEX
  • HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL CELLS
  • GROWTH-FACTOR
  • DROSOPHILA EMBRYOS
  • IN-VIVO
  • COOPERATIVE INTERACTIONS
  • ENGRAILED HOMEODOMAIN
  • PROGESTERONE-RECEPTOR
  • PROMOTER ACTIVITY
  • homeobox
  • transcriptional activation
  • repression
  • gene targets
  • promoter
  • Hox
  • Insecta Arthropoda Invertebrata Animalia (Animals, Arthropods, Insects, Invertebrates) - Diptera [75314] Drosophila melanogaster species
  • Primates Mammalia Vertebrata Chordata Animalia (Animals, Chordates, Humans, Mammals, Primates, Vertebrates) - Hominidae [86215] human common
  • Rodentia Mammalia Vertebrata Chordata Animalia (Animals, Chordates, Mammals, Nonhuman Vertebrates, Nonhuman Mammals, Rodents, Vertebrates) - Muridae [86375] rat common mouse common
  • DNA
  • gene
  • Hox homeobox
  • 03502, Genetics - General
  • 03506, Genetics - Animal
  • 03508, Genetics - Human
  • 10062, Biochemistry studies - Nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines
  • 64076, Invertebrata: comparative, experimental morphology, physiology and pathology - Insecta: physiology
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
  • Molecular Genetics
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Humans
  • Mammals
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Binding
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • homeodomain protein
  • repressor protein
  • transcription factor
  • developmental stage
  • gene expression
  • laboratory method
  • mammal
  • protein
  • animal
  • binding site
  • biological model
  • gene expression regulation
  • genetic transcription
  • human
  • metabolism
  • molecular genetics
  • nucleotide sequence
  • promoter region
  • protein binding
  • sequence homology
  • short survey
  • signal transduction
  • Promoter Regions (Genetics)
  • Mammalia
  • Gene targets
  • Homeobox
  • Promoter
  • Repression
  • Transcriptional activation
  • GENES

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